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Trilobite assemblage of Calceola-bearing beds in Acanthopyge Limestone (Choteč formation, Middle Devonian, Eifelian, Prague Basin, the Czech Republic)

Abstract

The trilobite assemblage of Calceola-bearing beds in the upper part of Acanthopyge Limestone (Choteč Formation, Eifelian) in the Koněprusy area, the Czech Republic, is described. Together with occurrence of Calceola, it indicates absence of significant palaeogeographic barriers restricting the distribution of the Rhenish-Type faunas in the Middle Devonian. The generic composition of the gathered trilobite assemblage somewhat differs from typical Acanthopyge-Phaetonellus assemblage characteristic for the Acanthopyge Limestone facies in possible absence and/or very rare occurrence of Phaetonellus, and only infrequent occurrence of Acanthopyge. Phacopid Chotecops cf. hoseri (Hawle et Corda, 1847) distinctly dominates; all other taxa are rather rare. Important is an occurrence of scutelluids of the Scutellum sensu lato group (preservation of remains does not enable more precise determination) and Longiproetus(?). Trilobite remnants are generally poorly preserved and very fragmented (only minute shields are not affected), which support a high-dynamic, shallow-water original environment.

Open access
Turbidite sedimentology, biostratigraphy and paleoecology: A case study from the Oligocene Zuberec Fm. (Liptov Basin, Central Western Carpathians)

Abstract

Outcrops of a thick turbiditic succession are exposed on the northern bank of the Liptovská Mara reservoir near Liptovská Ondrašová and Ráztoky. The section consists of rhythmic, predominantly thin- to medium-bedded turbidites of the Rupelian age. Their biostratigraphy is based on the calcareous nannofossils. Facies associations of these deposits represent different components of depositional lobe deposits in the turbidity fan system, including mainly the lobe fringe and lobe distal fringe/inter-lobe facies associations and locally the medium bedded deposits of the lobe off-axis facies association. This interpretation is supported by statistical analysis. The deep-sea turbiditic deposits contain trace fossil associations, which include deep-tier fodinichnia and domichnia up to shallow-tier graphoglyptids. Paleocurrent measurements indicate that the majority of sedimentary material was transported from SW and W.

Open access
Beauplan’s Ukraine: open access georeferenced databases for studies of early modern history of Central and Eastern Europe

Abstract

In 1630, Guillaume Le Vasseur, sieur de Beauplan, travelled to the lands of Poland-Lithuania to begin a seventeen-year military career in the Crown army. The purpose of the Beauplan’s Ukraine (BU) project is to provide a set of open access, georeferenced databases for the populated places, rivers, river fords, river rapids, islands, forests, mountains, valleys, and travel paths that are shown on a selection of maps created by Beauplan. The purpose of this document is to describe how these databases and related materials can be accessed and applied by scholars, with the ultimate goal of this work being to convert the rich source of information provided by Beauplan’s maps into a viable instrument for the laboratory of the historian of south-eastern Europe in Early Modern times.

Open access
A concept “Riphaean Mountains” in ancient geocartography: myth, cosmology, symbol and/or reality?

Abstract

One of the most mysterious concepts in ancient geography are the Riphaean Mountains that had for centuries been the object of mythological, cosmological, geographic, cartographic, and poetic discourses. Having originated as a designation of the northern (in relation to Greece) Thracian mountain, the name in the course of time became attached to the mountains located in the extreme north of the oecumene. Cosmological ideas explaining the rising of the earth’s surface to the north, the passage of the sun after sunset through the northern outskirts of the oecumene behind the Riphaean Mountains eastward, and many others were associated with these mountains. In ancient literature the Riphaean Mountains are often associated with a blessed people of the Hyperboreans who seemed to live beyond the Riphaean Mountains in a particularly favorable climate. In this paper the attempts of ancient cartographers to locate the Riphaean Mountains on a geographical map will be considered.

Open access
Distribution and types of windmills in Pomerania across the 19th century in the light of cartographic sources

Abstract

The aim of this text is to evaluate the distribution of windmills in Pomerania, an area which stretches from Gdańsk to Toruń, over the period of the nineteenth century. The basic research method was to analyse various maps from both the early nineteenth century and the late nineteenth century. The results made it possible to state that the total number windmills increased by a factor of three, and that this referred mainly to cereal mills. The number of vertical windmills with rotating caps increased at the beginning of the nineteenth century, but the number of drainage windmills remained unchanged. The very high demand for wind energy was a result of significant economic development within the Prussian partition in the second half of the nineteenth century. Cartographic sources allowed this phenomenon to be verified in the most complete way.

Open access
Environment, technology and sustainability: the development and management of well-irrigation in Guanzhong Plain in Qing China

Abstract

This paper presents a case study of the well irrigation in Guanzhong Plain during the Qing dynasty. The paper analyses the scales and results of well irrigation campaigns sponsored by the government in the mid-eighteen century and the late nineteenth century. Limited by the natural environment and technical conditions, the efficiency of well irrigation is poor. Farmers’ choices also affect the development of well irrigation. Moreover, a lack of management led to the unsustainable use of groundwater. Historical groundwater policies were mainly aimed at increasing agricultural production. Policies should be made according to local conditions. It is important to ensure the sustainable development of groundwater.

Open access
The journey of C.T. Ramage through the Cilento in the first half of the nineteenth century, between geography and history of an ‘unknown’ land

Abstract

Many travelers-writers have described the characteristics of the areas visited from a critical point of view, with wit and sense of observation. One of the most significant and unknown works concerning this literary current is the tale of the trip from Paestum to Policastro made in 1828 by C.T. Ramage: his sketchbooks are not only a description of the evidence of the past and of the archaeological remains of the Ancient Greece, but a small geo-history of the Cilento (shortly before its insurrection of that same year), as the first stage of a journey that returns a fresco of the South of Italy as it was before the process of Italian unification, respect to its agricultural landscapes, customs and dietary habits, attitudes, superstitions, society, culture, religious and political affairs, comparable with the present context of the same territories.

Open access
The known unknown land
The history of study of north China in the XIXth century

Abstract

This article is devoted to the history of Russian hypsometric and geographic investigations of the northern part of China, Mongolia, Manchuria, the Amur and the Ussuri region in the 19th century. The article is based on the analysis of numerous sources from the Russian State Historical Archive, St. Petersburg Branch of the Archive of the Academy of Sciences, Russian National Library, the Library of the Shanghai Zikawei Observatory. The article’s methodological framework is objectivity concept, systematically of scientific analysis of archival materials.

The considerable attention is paid to H. Fritsche’s, Palladius’s, N.M. Przhevalsky’s and other expeditions. The detailed analysis of a new systematic mapping of the northern part of China, made by the Russian scientists is given. The role of the Beijing Magneto-meteorological observatory in Beijing, as the part of the Russian Academy of sciences, is specially noted. The author considers in details the political and socio-economic conditions of expeditions.

Open access
Orvieto and Bagnoregio in the XIV century – a case study on city and countryside in Late Medieval Italy

Abstract

The aim of this article is to examine the interactions among main cities and the rural communities subordinate to them in central Italy during Late Middle Age. Premise of my work is the refusal of the assumption that cities and towns interacted between them as a whole. I choose Orvieto and its subordinate town of Bagnoregio in 1303 and 1304 as case study to enlighten that parties and faction based in the city and in the town interacted in ways that it is impossible to reduce to the dichotomy master- servant: this links as a whole shaped the dialogue between the city and its subordinates.

Open access
Past and present: cartographic history of Famagusta

Abstract

The island of Cyprus has been occupied by various powers, during which time the historical and cultural contexts of the main cities of the island have changed and left behind material traces. One of these cities is the main port city of the island Famagusta, where the various ruling powers affected its fabric and the different historic structures of the city combine with modern in the contemporary city. These multicultural structures and historical layers can be followed on the maps. The aim of this paper is to follow the changing urban fabric of Famagusta by examining the selected maps from the 16th century to modern times. How much the city undergoes spatial alteration and how much of the historical structure and developments can be followed on the cartographic records? The paper will question the perspective of the cartographers towards Famagusta and their priorities in depicting this multicultural city.

Open access