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Expenditures on Collective and Individual Services: Discussion on the Classification of Government Expenditures with Regard to their Inclusion into Growth Models

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of government expenditures on long-run economic growth in developed countries using their different breakdown. Empirical analysis is performed for a panel of 34 OECD countries in the period 2000-2012. Above all, the results support the idea that conclusions of previous studies on this topic may be strongly distorted by inappropriate classification of expenditures, typically in the case of expenditures on education and health. These are usually considered productive and thus growth enhancing, but if their part of R&D expenditures is detached, their effect on growth is in fact negative. In general, it is concluded that government expenditures on individual services have negative effects on growth, while the impact of expenditures on collective services is positive.

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In the Shadow of the State - the Informal Economy and Informal Economy Labor Force

Abstract

In this paper, the main focus lies on the informal economy and on work in the shadow. The most influential factors on the informal economy are tax policies and state regulation. The size of the informal economy was decreasing over the period 1999 to 2007, from 34.0% to 31.2% for 161 countries (unweighted average). Furthermore, economic opportunities, taxes and regulations, the general situation on the labor market, and unemployment are crucial for an understanding of the dynamics of the shadow labor force. In contrast with the decrease of the informal economy (value added figures), the informal economy labor force increased for most countries over the period 1999 to 2007.

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Protecting Human Rights Through Fundamental Principles of Administrative Procedures in Eastern Europe

Abstract

Administrative procedures (APs) are tools to protect fundamental human rights in statecitizen relations. As the modernization of public administration regulation is undergoing a transformation in the direction of reducing detailed rules on APs and, by the same token, emphasizing fundamental or general principles, research on the development and the state of the art of administrative principles in the general administrative procedure acts (APAs) of selected Eastern Europe countries with a common heritage of Austrian law dating back to 1925 (Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia and the Czech Republic) was carried out. The normative-comparative analysis reveals differences in approaches to and the pace of APAs reform and content; some countries are taking a more radical approach, mainly by following good governance dimensions. Convergence based on Council of Europe and EU initiatives is also evident. Classical guarantees against the misuse of power (principles of legality, equality, proportionality, rights of defense, etc.) are therefore crucial. The most progress seems to have been made by Croatia and the Czech Republic; by focusing on partnerships in administrative-legal relations in the sense of good administration, these two countries have, among other things, set a trend for other countries to follow.

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Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in Agricultural and Food Products Between Poland and EU Countries

Abstract

The present study investigates the country-specific determinants of intra-industry trade between Poland and its European Union trading partners in agricultural and food products during the time period 2002-2011. An econometric model for panel data is applied for the analysis of the factors determining Polish bilateral intra-industry trade with European Union countries. The research leads to the formulation of a statement that the intensity of intra-industry trade in agricultural and food products is positively influenced by the intensity of trade with EU countries and the level of economic development of the member countries (as measured by the size of their GDP per capita). Increase in intra-trade turnover is also facilitated by EU membership and by the fact that Poland’s trade partners use similar Slavic-based languages. Relative differences in the size of the economies and relative differences in Poland’s and its trading partners’ levels of economic development have a negative impact. The degree of the imbalance of trade turnover between trading partners also negatively influences the intensity of intra-trade exchange. The research confirms that the impact of all of the identified factors determining intra-industry trade is consistent with the predictions of the theory.

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German Language Proficiency among Students of Business and Management in the Czech Republic and its Perception: The Importance of German Language Skills on the Labour Market and the Role of Universities in Foreign Language Training

Abstract

This paper presents the results of an empirical study designed to map German language proficiency among students at Czech universities of business and management. The results of this empirical survey can be summarised as follows. First, the ability of students at Czech universities of business and management to communicate in German is poor, and exceeds the general German language proficiency of the Czech population only to an insignificant extent. Second, the school environment (the opportunity to learn the language, compulsory subject, language study motivation) has a decisive influence on the respondents’ ability to communicate in German. Third, nearly three-quarters of the respondents perceive German as a language that is very or rather important for their profession and career growth. Fourth, almost two-thirds of the respondents consider the role played by a university of business and management in the improvement of German language proficiency rather or very important. In conclusion, the study proposes directions for the potential development of the national educational system in the area of German language proficiency of university graduates in business and management in the Czech Republic, with an emphasis on the concept of content and language integrated learning (CLIL). We believe that the survey results are also very important from the point of view of enterprises operating in the Czech Republic because of the very close economic relations between the Czech Republic and German-speaking countries.

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The International Court of Justice and the Legality of UN Security Council Resolutions

Abstract

Through the United Nation’s Charter, the UN Security Council represents the most powerful executive institutional body in the field of collective security. Moreover, its ultra vires acts may have distinct legal consequences. Accordingly, questions arising from these facts are whether such a large scope of competences could be abused, what are the limits of the executed power and above all, affirmation of the legality of the actions of Council. Predominantly by means of the analytical method as well as a case study of the Lockerbie case, the present study provides the related argumentative discourse. Notwithstanding the fact that the decisions of the Council appear to be without any limitations, it is obliged to act within the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. The opinion of the International Court of Justice on the legality of the SC’s actions in the field of collective security are still, however, indirectly expressed through its general function.

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Methodology For The Selection Of Compensation Trade Tools In SMEs

Abstract

The main aim of this paper is to determine which factors of business tools are important in Czech companies. To find these factors, theoretical information from the area of trade tools and data from primary research (obtained via questionnaire) were used. These data are applied by a statistical evaluation of selected indicators which could help determine the significance of the indicators in the area being monitored. Activities concerning the management of company finances are also partially incorporated, as due to their close cohesion with business, they cannot be excluded from the field of turnaround management. The business tools described in the paper see excellent usage not only during times of crisis but also in periods of prosperity, when their application provides companies with unique competitive advantages as a way of increasing GDP. The results of the paper confirm the necessity for compensation tools in the business environment and provide the significance level of the compensation tools used. Accurate usage could create an advantage in a global market characterised by high competition.

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Challenges to Professional Football Companies and their Answers with Particular Regard to Organisational Changes

Abstract

Professional football has been going through a period of unprecedented economic growth since the ’90s. Football ventures are increasingly becoming medium-sized companies. There have also been organizational changes, reflected in changes in the legal forms of professional football clubs, and in the use of modern controlling, planning, risk and financial management. Important questions remain unanswered with regard to the financing of football clubs, such as the impact of risks or the market value of capital costs. In addition to liquidity and the above, the acceptance of the determinational dependence of certain capital funds on sports results and the development of a strategy suitable for the optimal target system are also important requirements. In this article, we would like to present the answers football companies have given to the challenges they have been facing which affect their organisational system. In the light of international comparison, we examine the status of Hungarian football, which was once world famous and enjoyed better times in the past.

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Development of Concepts and Models of Performance Evaluation from the 19th Century to the Present

Abstract

The main aim of this paper is to provide a framework of concepts and models from the area of performance measurement. Due to the fact that the business environment is con-stantly changing, changes also occur in the trends relating to performance. Traditional financial performance measures have been highly criticized and the need identified to integrate non-financial perspectives, such as level of innovation, degree of motivation, intellectual capital and other criteria. Intellectual capital is often a crucial factor in the creation of value in a company. This paper provides a literature review supplemented by the author’s research in the field of performance. The article shows that the performance appraisal system is currently focused on several areas that could affect the performance of the company, which is also part of the overall performance of the economy in the form of GDP growth. Based on the research, it can be said that, for the sample tracked, the selection of performance evaluation system does not depend on the legal form of the business.

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Judges as Fiscal Activists: Can Constitutional Review Shape Public Finance?

Abstract

The judicialization of politics, or alternatively, politization of the judiciary has been much discussed over the last twenty years. Despite this, the way judges influence fiscal policy outcomes remains, to a large extent, unexplored. This paper attempts, at least partially, to fill this research gap. A judicial (constitutional) review constitutes the central element of the current analysis since it is considered as a key institutional device through which Constitutional (Supreme) Courts intervene in politics, including public finance. Specifically, this paper seeks to investigate empirically whether there is any systematic pattern according to which judges executing judicial review shape fiscal outcomes. The conceptual framework is based on the strategic interaction model and the assumption that the Constitutional Courts reflect public opinion (i.e. the Court as a majoritarian institution). Some preliminary results for a panel of 24 EU countries in the period 1995–2005 suggest that a strong judicial review correlates with a smaller size of government, measured as government income to GDP.

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