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Amarildo Laci, Armela Maxhelaku and Ilir Rusi

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to give some general views on international labour standards, regarding equality of opportunity and treatment. It is important to mention that respecting freedom from discrimination, as a fundamental human right, places a great importance in guaranteeing other rights for workers. Equality standards applied by ILO provide methods which aim to fight against discrimination in society and in the workplace of the employers. One part of this paper is focused in analyzing the term “discrimination”, focusing in different forms that can occur at work, the target group which it can affect and measures that can be taken in order to provide equality at work. This paper analyses the scope and the obligations under ILO instruments, such as three fundamental conventions. One of the most important conventions is the convention concerning discrimination regarding occupation and employment, “Discrimination Employment and Occupation” Convention nr. 111. This fundamental convention represents discrimination as every different treatment which has effect on equality of creating same possibilities for everyone in occupation or employment. According to this legal act, it is mandatory the implementation of a national legislation which promotes equality of treatment and opportunity, regarding occupation and employment in general, designed to eliminate all types of different treatment in these fields. This paper is focused especially on analyzing the “Workers with Family Responsibilities” Convention, 1981, which refers to standards on equal treatment and opportunities for both women and men workers. “Workers with Family Responsibilities” Convention, applies to workers with such responsibilities, which restrict their possibilities to involve in an economic activity. The purpose is to provide an effective implementation of standards related to equality of treatment and opportunity for both women and men workers, in order to guarantee free choice of employment to help workers which have family responsibilities and to take into consideration their needs. Furthermore in this paper will be identified the methods that governments should apply, which aim to provide the application of the standard of equal compensation for workers, according to “Equal Remuneration” Convention, 1951 (No. 100).

Open access

Said Rashid Al Harthy

Abstract

This study investigates the effects of the socio-cultural factors on the motivation of female and male students in 14 Arab and non-Arab countries through 14 studies. The findings indicate that both genders in the two groups share some interests of motivation for learning English, but they differ in some cultural factors that influence or hinder their learning. The findings of this research found that female students′ integrative motivation and attitudes towards English are higher than male students. The present study suggests a serious need for conducting qualitative or mixed method studies to investigate this phenomenon and to propose practical alternatives to increase male students' language motivation to learn English especially the integrative type. Pedagogical implications for teachers and suggestions for further research are included.

Open access

Alqi Naqellari, Eros Angjeli and Nexhmi Dumani

Abstract

In this paper analyzes the problem of the dynamics of income and expenditure of households in Albania. Analyzing costs in general, spending on food in particular, both connected with a range of other indicators of welfare, with per capita income, expenses for the basket of goods, according to its elements and structure. Survey basket expenditure according to regions of Albania. Analyzed per capita income, expenses basket compared with countries in the region, Europe and the world. The goal is: to extract an accurate conclusion, the place at which ranks Albania in these indicators. What to do in the future, in order to emerge from this negative situation. The conclusions drawn from the analysis are: Albania ranks last places of the world, the indicator of per capita income and expenditure of households. Ranked in first countries in the region and in Europe for the indication of the percentage of expenditure on food and non-alcoholic drinks to the total cost of items in the basket. This situation has come as a result of lower rates of growth of its economy. It recommended changes in the structure of GDP in terms of growth of light industry and food industry extraction and processing, etc. By developing these branches will grow faster GDP and national income, and consequently will increase per capita income. Methods used are: methods of analysis and synthesis, methods of description and comparison, statistical methods etc.

Open access

Alex Kwao

Abstract

The educational landscape though serves as the bedrock for human resource development, it still has challenging academic experiences in Junior High Schools in Ghana. The realization is that, transitional stages of schooling seem not to have curriculum alignment that reflect tertiary education programme. Yearning for flexibility, harmonization and synchronization of the curriculum, the paper seeks to explore missing interest areas, talents in order to discover inspired paths that underpin enrichment of the school curriculum. To deepen high school experience for appropriate and best practices in human capital development, the researchers examine curriculum design and its implications on policy, the case of the JHS teaching subjects in Ghana. This engagement adopts the combined approach using the discursive method and descriptive analysis. Participants of the study include 100 students, 10 teachers, 5 circuit supervisors, and 5 curriculum experts of the Cape Coast Metropolis. Interviews are the main instruments used for the qualitative analysis while graphical representations and achievement tests are conducted for students from the ten schools. In the investigations, the study discovers that, there is no curriculum alignment in some of the teaching subjects taught at the JHS level despite their potential areas for human capital development. It is recommended that, the curriculum at the JHS level should be revised to reflect the best practices, prospects and opportunities for students.

Open access

Agerti Galo

Abstract

Thousands of people are applying for credit cards in the bank now days. Bank department that deals with credit cards is impossible to evaluate all multiple applications. Therefore they used automatic procedures based on computer and statistical models to assess the credit card requirements. The approval rating of applications until recently was based on human judgment that deals with ‘is persons evaluating applications. Recently the increasing demand for credit cards brought the necessity of evaluation models. The models used are a synthesis of highly complex mathematical analysis. These models are too difficult to understand as well as their application upon field requires users who have a certain level of education. Deficiencies and difficulties in using of them make the users to look at alternative models which are acceptable and easily accessible. Hierarchical analysis process (AHP) is a model that meets the needs for decision-making but also ease of use from that who owns the model makes it more attractive. Using AHP by banks in their decision-making needs would bring them a low cost and it would be highly efficient.

Open access

Kladiola Gjini

Abstract

One of the most important topics in empirical trade research is the link between productivity and trade liberalization. In this paper we will focus on the effect of MFN tariffs in the total factor productivity of Croatian firms over the period 2003-2012. This period is characterized by an increased openness toward European Union for Croatian firms. The aim of this paper is to present evidence on the negative link between productivity and tariffs by using the Levinsohn and Petrin (2003) method to estimate productivity of firms. Then we will use TFP as a dependent variable for firm characteristics and trade policy indicator (MFN tariffs). The results are in line with most other studies, confirming the negative relationship between TFP and tariffs. The results show that exporting firms have a higher productivity than non-exporting. We also conclude that up to a certain age productivity increases and then decreases.

Open access

Jani Sota

Abstract

The beginning of the XX century was the time when the contradictions of the capitalism pass into imperialism and leaded to the World War Two. The imperialist relationships between states and the abnormal aggravation of the classes, divergences between bourgeoisie and proletariat extended the activity of bourgeoisie regarding the variety of culture. The fear for the existence of the bourgeoisie class and the desire for the preservation of the capitalist system were seen in the cultural attempts of the beginning of the XX century. In this period is seen the birth of the new pedagogy, which is recognised as the progressive pedagogy gaining role and importance in the capitalist world. The movement started first in the United States of America in the first hundred years of the XX century. The new ideas were first developed by some young teachers who tried to put these into practice. Step by step those ideas were supported by a wider scale of teachers or scholars. The pedagogic progressive movement was strengthened during the last twenty years of the XX century, reaching its peak with the foundation of the “Progressive Education Association”.

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Omar Mizel

Abstract

The professional literature extensively discusses the needs of the student for emotional and cognitive development; this topic has been neglected in connection with pedagogical instruction. A prominent scholar who deals with this topic is A.H. Maslow (1956), who argues that we are all born with needs that direct us toward growth, development and self-realization. No systematic research studies have yet been conducted on the subject of the student’s needs in this respect, and the lack of a methodical approach to that subject is sorely felt. The identification of these needs could increase collaboration and trust between the teacher training college and the school. The sample in the present study consisted of 15 teacher mentors - 9 males and 6 females - who participated in an action research study on the topic of pedagogical instruction. The central tools chosen for this study were interviews, documentation and observation of a course in the process of its being taught. The findings point to the difficulty teacher mentors encounter in the fulfillment of their needs, including even their basic needs, and to the result that the teacher mentors′ feelings of alienation and their distrust of pedagogical instruction makes it hard for them to build a cooperative relationship. One of the recommendations is to develop an organizational structure that will invite all the participants in the pedagogical instruction encounter to work together so that they will all feel that they are vital to the success of their fellow participants.

Open access

M. O. Ajibola, I. J. Emeghe, A. O. Oluwumi and A. S. Oni

Abstract

The study examined the choice of programme that students’ offered in the University, especially in the built environment. Questionnaire was administered on 100 Level students in the Departments of Architecture, Building Technology and Estate Management of Covenant University, Ota. A total of 136 copies of questionnaire was retrieved and used for analysis as contained in the study. The study revealed that 79.4% were in the University based on their parents’ choice while 90% are responsible for the choice of course (programme) they are pursuing in the University based on personal interest. About 69.9% of the students dislike the University which may be a factor to be considered in their academic performances. It is therefore very important that, even though the students are very tender in ages, respect should be given to their opinion in taking decision(s) on issues that border on their lives. Parents should always take time to talk things over with their wards rather than imposing their opinion on the children.