Increase in population contributes and it is also affected by climate change, hence it deserves consideration in any climate change policy development strategies. Based on the importance of population growth on climate change, this study was embarked on to ascertain the perception of students to the influence of population growth on the consequences of climate change. The population of the study consisted of undergraduate students in a Federal University in Southern part of Nigeria. A sample size of 362 respondents were selected using systematic sampling to select every one and other halls of residence (3 halls of residence selected out of 6) and simple random sampling of balloting by replacement to select 14% each from the three halls of residence. The questionnaires administered were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and the descriptive and inferential statistical tools were employed to analyze the data gotten. The study revealed that there was a significant difference on the respondents perception based on their gender, age group and home of residence(Urban or rural). Based on these findings, it was recommended among other things that population control measures should be effectively implemented in the country. And any policy on climate change, gender, age group and location should be considered because a gender, age group and location bias policy will increase the severity of the problem.
Joash Okello Aloo, Jack Odongo Ajowi and Peter Jairo O. Aloka
The study investigated the influence of Teachers Performance Appraisal (TPA) policy on timeliness in the implementation of the curriculum in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya. The study adopted an Ex post facto design. Additionally, the study population consisted of 5450 teachers, 334 Principals, the TSC-County Director and 334 Deputy Principals of public secondary schools. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 179 Principals and 179 Deputy Principals. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the Principals and Deputy Principals. Document analysis guide was used to collect data which was not readily obtained through questionnaires. Reliability of the instruments for data collection was tested by assessing the scale’s internal consistency using Crobanch’s alpha and reliability coefficient of at least 0.7 was achieved in all the sub-scales of the questionnaire. Validity was determined by experts in Educational Administration. Quantitative data from questionnaires was analyzed by using inferential statistics, for instance, Linear Regression analysis and Pearson Correlation. The study established that TPA policy had a positive significant influence on; timeliness in curriculum implementation (r=.604, p<.05), curriculum evaluation by teachers (r =.726, p<.05). The TPA was established to be a significant predictor of the timelines in curriculum implementation [F (1, 316) = 181.90, p < .05]. The study recommends that TSC should enforce TPA policy and use it as a tool for promoting and deploying teachers into leadership positions. The study recommends that the Ministry of Education should guide every school to come up with syllabus coverage monitoring tool that can be administered alongside TPA.
Dominant discourses on young people’s work tend to highlight the dangers associated with their work. Childhood is seen as a time for school and play and work has been tagged as unarguably incompatible with schooling depriving them enjoying their childhood and reaping the full benefits that come with their schooling. However, far from being universally negative in young people’s lives, the contribution of work particularly to their education and well-being should not be overlooked. Misleading results of policies underpinned by dominant discourses hamper the chances of some working young people to benefit from schooling and damage their chances for development. These benefits are particularly crucial to young people in difficult circumstances of poverty and impoverishment. Utilizing child-focused alongside some traditional methods, the paper gives a voice and hearing to the concerns articulated by young workers and other stakeholders. This paper attempts to highlight the creative side of their work and how some young workers are innovatively finding a balance between schooling and work. It exposes the disconnection between interventions towards young people’s educational inclusion and improves well-being vis-a-vis universalised legislations targeted at abolishing their work. The paper is expected to inform a reconsideration of the conventional thinking and global policy on young people’s work in the global south as some young people are indeed demonstrating work-school compatibility.
The study assessed factors constraining use of positive discipline practices in Mzilikazi District Secondary Schools. Qualitative approach and case study design were employed. Purposively selected participants from four secondary schools comprised four school heads; twenty members of the disciplinary committee, four school counsellors, forty prefects and four School Development Committee chairpersons. Data analysed thematically were collected using face to face semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews. Results revealed that lack of role models, ineffective communication, not rewarding positive behaviour, ineffective monitoring and inadequate financial resources constrained use of positive discipline practices in selected schools. The study concluded that factors that constrained use of positive discipline practices in schools mainly emanated from teachers, learners, parents and the members of the community. It is recommended that schools should initiate training programmes for teachers and parents to positively influence their discipline practices in enhancing use of positive discipline practices.
The study examined differences in perception among Senior High School Economics teachers on the relative importance of indicators of teachers’ professional skills, based on teaching experience. The study employed the descriptive survey method and comprised a sample of 115 professional Economics teachers drawn from the Central Region of Ghana. A self-designed questionnaire was administered on the respondents. The data were analysed using the t-test. The findings of the study showed that highly experienced Economics teachers perceive indicators of teachers’ skills of instructional planning as more important, relative to the experienced Economics teachers. Again, the finding showed a significant difference in perception between the highly experienced and experienced Economics teachers about the relative importance of the skills of instructional assessment. The study recommends the organisation of in-service workshops for sensitisation as well as the creation of a community of learners among SHS Economics teachers for the sharing of knowledge and experiences.
Science teachers need an adequate understanding of the nature and processes of science as the basis for their pedagogical content knowledge for effective classroom delivery. The aim of the study was to find out in-service teachers’ views on the nature of science (NOS) and how their views compared with informed understanding of the NOS. The study adopted an exploratory case study methodology, qualitative in nature, and used convenience sampling. A questionnaire was administered to 50 in-service teachers doing a bachelor of science honours degree at a selected university in Zimbabwe. The students had done a course in history and philosophy of science where there were exposed to some topics on the NOS. Frequency counts and mean scores were used to describe views of the participants. Analysis involved comparing in-service teachers’ responses with experts’ views. The findings reveal that the students had a naïve understanding of NOS in 5 out of 16 statements from the administered questionnaire. Despite these observations the participants generally had a fair understanding of the NOS as evidenced by the fact that the participants managed to correctly respond to 69% of the questions asked. As such we infer that teaching and learning of nature of science as part of history and philosophy of science had a positive impact on in-service teachers’ views. The few instances when participants’ responses revealed contradictions, suggest that teaching and learning history and philosophy of science may not be adequate to develop a full understanding of nature of science. Further research is recommended with large samples, using a revised Views Of Nature of Science (VNOS) questionnaire and interviews, and document analysis to reveal how nature of science is taught and learnt.
Systems of human values reflected in European languages have not yet been diagnosed in language sciences, as no accurate diagnostic measures have been proposed. Research has been conducted into methods of modelling conceptual systems of moral values. Since ethics, unlike subjects related to natural sciences, resists lexicographic approach reliant on topicality, linked with market demand, a new research method has been devised. Specialised lexicography tools can be optimized to deal with the subject of ethics. The new method takes into account differences between subject areas regarding their associations with a type of science. Systems of human values can be measured based on prioritizing documents created in European languages according to the degree to which concepts referred to in these documents are fixed. These findings give rise to a cross-historical and cross-cultural linguistic enterprise. Its aim is to identify moral concepts and to connect them into semantic maps. The maps, one per language, are contrasted to find out which moral concepts are ‘shared’ across languages, and which of them are less common, or language specific. The model of ‘common’ values can be seen as an instrument to preserve and promote European moral heritage.
This paper attempts to introduce current perspective on EFL students of lower secondary level in terms of speech fluency. The major objective of this study is to investigate errors in the speech of students from eleven to twelve years old. This research seeks to address the question of analysing errors in order to explore particular aspects of EFL in the initial phase of Slovak cultural context. Based on the theory of behaviourism that tackles the issue of learning as a habit, the paper deals with the possible influence of perception of abstract concepts in Slovak cultural environment on EFL learning. Furthermore, the paper examines the potential causes of errors or undue hesitation which occur in the students′ speech. A combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches was used in the data analysis. The study was conducted in the form of an interview between an interlocutor and a student with data being gathered via audio-recordings which have been transcribed and analysed. It attempts to list possible areas which might be taken into consideration and adapt the EFL curriculum in the initial phase of English language learners in Slovak cultural context.
A case of mobile apps in the Lithuanian and English language pair
Gilvilė Stankevičiūtė, Ramunė Kasperavičienė and Jolita Horbačauskienė
Machine translation (MT) is still a huge challenge for both IT developers and users. From the beginning of machine translation, problems at the syntactic and semantic levels have been faced. Today despite progress in the development of MT, its systems still fail to recognise which synonym, collocation or word meaning should be used. Although mobile apps are very popular among users, errors in their translation output create misunderstandings. The paper deals with the analysis of machine translation of general everyday language in Lithuanian to English and English to Lithuanian language pairs. The results of the analysis show that more than two thirds of all the sentences were translated incorrectly, which means that there is a relatively small possibility that a mobile app will translate sentences correctly. The results are disappointing, because even after almost 70 years of MT research and improvement, researchers still cannot offer a system that would be able to translate with at least 50% correctness.
Effective communication skills represent a crucial aspect of competence of professionals working in institutionalized care. Quality of communication between professionals and clients has an impact on how the care is delivered, how clients perceive the care and how professionals experience their role. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of current research on the education interventions aimed at improving communication skills of professionals working with clients in institutionalized care, e.g. nursing homes. Main keywords and phrases (communication, language, education, training, intervention, role play, professionals, institutionalized care) were used to search for relevant papers in the available databases. Studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were analyzed from the perspective of study design, target sample (social workers, health care professionals, andragogists), applied methods of education, and quality of measures employed to assess the effect. Interventions for effective communication skills development were identified. The study summarizes the main theoretical perspectives, empirically supported intervention approaches and future directions.