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Racial Composition of School District on School Leaders′ Responses to State Takeover: A Field Experiment on the Application of Michigan’s Emergency Manager Law

Abstract

Michigan’s Public Act 436, commonly referred to as the Emergency Manager Law, has provided for state installed emergency managers to oversee financially distressed municipalities as well as school districts. Given that a number of Michigan school districts, suburban, rural, and urban, have been operating at a deficit for several years and yet only the financial status of majority Black school districts (Detroit, Highland Park, Muskegon Heights) have triggered this takeover law, this field experiment investigated the effect of school district’s racial composition on both the level of support for state-installed emergency managers in districts and the level of support for politically material resistance to the application of that remedy. Implications regarding policy and critical policy research are forwarded in light of the results.

Open access
Self-Regulated Learning and the Use of Online Portfolios: A Social Cognitive Perspective

Abstract

This study highlights the interrelationship among self-regulated learning (SRL) skills, the use of online portfolios, and social cognitive learning theory. It was conducted as a longitudinal mixed-methods study over one academic year with students enrolled in a postgraduate professional practice programme. The study used both quantitative and qualitative statistical analyses. Results showed a strong positive correlation between SRL skills and the perceptions of the usefulness of online portfolios. Based on these results, the researcher have suggested a new model which integrates students′ use of online portfolios; the influence of online portfolios on students′ SRL skills and vice versa; and the three social cognitive learning theory factors of person, behaviour and environment and their effect on students′ SRL skills across the three phases of forethought, performance, and self-reflection within an online learning environment.

Open access
A Survey of the Level of Junior Secondary School Students′ Use of Listening Comprehension Strategies in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to find out the level of the listening comprehension strategies that junior secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State use in learning English Language. From a population of six thousand five hundred and thirty four (6534) Junior Secondary 3 students in public schools, a total of six hundred and sixty two (662) students constituted the sample size drawn through the stratified sampling and simple random techniques from six (6) sampled schools. Two instruments titled Listening Comprehension Proficiency Test (LCPT), developed by TOEFL and Listening Comprehension Strategy Questionnaire (LCSQ) adopted from Oxford (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) were used to collect the data for the study. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation). Results indicated that among the six strategy categories, Metacognitive (M=2.16, SD= .46), had the highest mean, followed by the Cognitive (M=1.97, SD= .34), Compensation (M=1.97, SD=.46), Social (M=1.95, SD=.47) and Memory (M=1.89, SD=.41). Affective (M=1.84, SD=.43) had the lowest mean. On the average, all the variables put together the findings from research question 2 indicates that the subjects had a mean score of 1.96 which is lower than the theoretical mean of 2.0. This indicates that students′ use of listening strategies is low. As a result, the study proposed that learners should be exposed to listening strategy instruction.

Open access
Teacher and His/Her Role in Teaching English

Abstract

Teachers play e key role in the process of teaching. In this article it is tried to focus on some of the most important roles that the teacher of English language plays during the difficult process of teaching. The role of the teacher in class is important. In the class teachers are: leaders of the language, thinkers, administrators, surces experts, vigilants, material furnishers, organizers, performers, estimators, listeners and controllers. At the recent literature is posed the question of the ideal teacher, so what makes a good teacher? According to Medgyes P. All the teachers are extraordinary according to their ways and different from eacher other. According to him the concept of the ideal teacher does not fit to a single concept, because many things have to be taken into consideration. Another image of English teacher is the teacher who is expert of the English language. According to Whitaker the English teacher needs to own the subject and to make the students to follow willingly the subject. He not only should own the subject but he should also know how to explain it.

Open access
“... As Long as Power Relations Exist ... Yes, There are Inequalities…” Social and Educational Inequalities in Greece According to the Views of Female and Male Students of Tertiary Education Institutions

Abstract

The issue of social and more specifically educational inequalities in Greek society and education seems to concern the Greek society less and less nowadays. Scientific research and the contemporary sociological theory have focused on specific areas of interest of the phenomenon, neglecting the issue in its macro sociological dimension, without, of course, this meaning that the frames and fields of analysis that have emerged are of minor importance. The main question that concerns this research is, if social and educational inequalities are recognized today by the Greek social body and on which fields they focus. Do social and educational inequalities exist in Greece? Are they recognizable and how are they manifested? Our research was carried out with two research tools: a questionnaire which includes two attitude scales (social and educational inequalities) (N=800) and another one which contains a single question, which concerns the expression of opinion about whether the sample considers that there are inequalities in the Greek education system, and the justification of its views (N=800). The questionnaires were answered by female and male students of Greek Universities and Technological Educational Institutes. We chose the university student status in the sample, in order to record attitudes and opinions of young people who are considered “favored” by the education system. The analysis showed that the sample considers that, indeed, there are inequalities in Greek society as well as in Greek education and it is able to recognize a significant range of indications of the phenomenon. It seems that the experienced inequality prevailed against the “favorable” treatment which the system “reserved” in this specific sample.

Open access
Assessment of English Grammar Functioning Level of Class Three Prelingually Deaf Learners in Kenya

Abstract

Learners in different countries are currently being taught language at their functioning level irrespective of grade levels. District Evaluation Tests in Kenya indicate that Class Three prelingually deaf learners are not being taught English at their functioning level. During the period 2010 - 2012, the learners obtained mean scores of 19.1-29.9%. However, the results did not show their functioning level in grammar to facilitate suitable intervention The purpose of the study was to assess the leaners′ functioning level in English grammar.. Theory of Syntax by Noam Chomsky was adapted and used. The study employed qualitative and evaluative research designs Study population consisted of 337 prelingually deaf learners and 65 English teachers. Multi-Stage and purposive sampling techniques were used to select 178 learners and 16 teachers respectively for the study Data was collected using a questionnaire and a test. The instruments were verified for validity. and tested for reliability. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and error analysis. None (0.0%) of the 178 learners obtained the criterion pass mark of 50%. The learners′ functioning level in English grammar was found to be at Class One level at the beginning of the school year. It was recommended that the learners be taught English grammar from Class One level at the beginning of the school year. The findings may be used by schools and the Ministry of Education for intervention.

Open access
The Benefits of Using ICT in the EFL Classroom: From Perceived Utility to Potential Challenges

Abstract

Research has shown that the use of Info-Tech in the EFL classroom can improve and enhance students′ language acquisition and substantially motivate them to continue their learning and stimulate their creativity and passion. However, the challenges and barriers that many EFL teachers and professors encounter while attempting to incorporate ICT in their teaching have triggered debates and growing concerns about the real utility of ICT use in the language classroom. So, do these benefits provide tangible evidence for the improvement of English language teaching and learning or are they just knickknacks that are beautiful rather than useful? Does the use of ICT in the EFL classroom boost learning and provide an environment for a more productive and varied learning? Research findings show that the use of information technology in the language classroom boosts autonomous learning, maximises targeted outcomes, motivates learners and helps them improve their performance in the EFL classroom. However, using ICT without careful planning and well-defined objectives will more likely be a waste of time and effort.

Open access
Critical Discourse Analysis of Interfaith Marriage News from Cyber Media in Indonesia

Abstract

In Indonesia, there are three preconditions for a successful marriage: being of legal age for marriage; parental approval, especially from the father; and religious and ethnic compatibility. The Indonesian Marriage Law provides that “a marriage is legitimate, if it has been performed according to the laws of the respective religions and beliefs of the parties concerned”. This clause indirectly prohibits inter-religious or interfaith marriage. Therefore, every religion in Indonesia encourages it followers to marry someone of the same religious faith. This research examines the issue of interfaith marriage as reported by Indonesia’s cyber media. Case studies are presented to explain why different media institutions have differing stances on the issue. Using a qualitative approach, the research uses the analytical data technique of Norman Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis. The authors analyzed three cyber media, Republika Online, Kompas.com, and Sinarharapan.co from September to December 2014. One key aim was to discover which media have the tendency to support diversity, discourse practice, and sociocultural practice. Results indicated that Islam-oriented media, such as Republika Online, tend to reject the movement for the legalization of interfaith marriage, as interfaith marriage is banned by Islamic shari’ law. Secular online media, such as Kompas.com with an independent ethos of transcendental humanism, lean toward support for rights and legal certainty for interfaith spouses. Meanwhile, Christian-oriented Sinarharapan.co tended to neglect the issue, as if deeming it irrelevant to its readership.

Open access
Economic Features of Lezha District

Abstract

The idea of the functional area was extremely important to the territorial reform which was implemented in Albania during the year 2014. Through this reform new and bigger local units were determined and high expectations were set toward a more consistent development and more efficient use of the public sector resources as well as utilization of the private sector energies. This study was conducted in the period of March - September 2015. Data is extracted from existing sources. The main data are retrieved by local government units which constitute Lezha’s functional area as well as Lezha District. Tourism and Agriculture are regarded as the most important sectors from all development strategies of local units. There are other growing sectors in Lezha which are making progress, albeit a bit slowly. They are worthy of attention due to the number of businesses and their employees. The most pronounced industries here are timber, fish processing industry, agriculture and livestock products. Another industry of considerable significance in this area is that of extracting and processing construction materials and nonmetallic mineral reserves. The territorial reform implemented in Albania aimed at efficient use of the public sector resources, as well as toward utilization of the private sector energies.

Open access