Adekunle Anthony Ogunjinmi and Charity Omokeme Braimoh
This study assessed the level of community awareness and participation in ecotourism in Old Oyo National Park, Nigeria. Data were collected in communities located in four ranges (i.e. administrative and protection zones) of Old Oyo National Park, Oyo State, Southwest Nigeria. The ranges are Tede, Marguba, Sepeteri, and Oyo-Ile. Seven (7) communities out of 27 that are in Tede range were selected, eight (8) were selected from 12 communities in Marguba range, eight (8) were selected from 17 communities in Sepeteri range while eight (8) were selected from 30 communities in Oyo Ile range. The study was a questionnaire survey involving 150 respondents that were randomly selected from communities in the four (4) ranges of the Park. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s HSD, t-test and logistic regression. Results revealed that 48% of the respondents were aware of ecotourism while 52% were not. Also, 46% participated in ecotourism while 54% did not participate. A relationship exists between ecotourism awareness and participation (p<0.01). Community type (p<0.01) was the only predictor of community awareness of ecotourism while community type (p<0.01) and awareness (p<0.01) were the predictors of participation in ecotourism in the park. Awareness, active involvement of communities in stakeholder meetings, decision-making and provision of start-up capital are important for ecotourism development in the park.
Rural development aims at improving the quality of life of rural people, and in the process infrastructure variables play a crucial role. India is the second most populous country in the world and the majority of its population lives in rural areas. Rural development has been India’s prime concern ever since the time of independence, and several strategies and plans were implemented from time to time to achieve a better level of development. However, neither top-down, nor bottom-up strategies of development could bring the desired changes. This article attempts to identify some correlates of rural development and tries to understand why the desired level and pattern of development could not be achieved even after seven decades of the planning process. The study analyses the case of ‘Sadar’ development block of Pratapgarh district in Uttar Pradesh. The analysis of 10 selected variables reveals that there is a vast disparity in the level of development in the study area. However, the study shows that lack of basic education, health and credit facilities is the cause of this disparity and poor level of development. In view of the findings the author suggests that a ‘local resource-oriented development strategy’ should be adopted to ensure the holistic development of the rural areas.
Marula Tsagkari, Alexis Gaona, Juan-Felipe Gonzalez and Jaakko Järvinen
International agreements that aim to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have raised concerns due to the risk of carbon leakage caused by trade liberalization. This study aims to analyse the carbon dioxide emissions related to trade flows for the case of Poland, in order to further investigate the interrelationship between emissions and the quick economic growth the country has faced since 2000. The communist past, the quick liberalization of the economy, the trade opening, entrance to the EU and the intense carbon economy, are some of the characteristics that make Poland an interesting case. The data available data from 1996 to 2008 were collected using the World Input-Output Database and were analyzed using the Input-Output method, and more concretely by constructing a multi-regional input-output model for the years studied. The findings indicate that there were substantial effects on the emissions of Poland that resulted from the opening of the economy and joining the European Union. Poland is a net importer of carbon emissions from other European countries; however, this phenomenon seems to be regulated by EU legislation. Additionally, it was shown that Polish imports from countries with less strict environmental policies significantly embody higher levels of emissions than its exports. This observation calls for stricter environmental regulations to avoid carbon leakage.
Katarzyna Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata Wistuba and Ireneusz Malik
The aim of the study was to investigate how the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere from the late 19th century until modern times has been recorded in rings of silver fir trees growing in southern Poland. Samples were collected from 24 firs growing in the Beskid Niski Mountains (Western Carpathians). Using a Pressler borer, a single core was collected from each tree. Within the samples, tree-ring widths were measured. On this basis, reductions of tree-ring widths were calculated and subsequently divided into three classes according to their severity. Study results indicate that growth reductions at the site studied were influenced by the pollution emitted from the now-defunct Central Industrial Region, which developed most rapidly from 1920 to 1940, and began to decline after World War II. These emissions were probably responsible for reductions in the trees sampled in the years 1928–1947. On the other hand, reductions of tree-ring widths dating from 1951 to 1989 were caused by the post-war development of heavy industry throughout Poland, and in particular in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, which developed at its most rapid rate from 1960 to 1990. The results obtained demonstrate that reductions of tree-ring widths in the silver firs studied are related to industrial air pollution in the 20th century. As industrial production declined and environmentally friendly technologies were introduced in the early 1990s, air pollution levels decreased and an increase in tree-ring widths followed in the silver firs studied. Further reductions of tree-ring widths have been observed in recent years (since 2009), which may be caused by air pollution due to low-stack emissions from domestic boilers. The analysis conducted demonstrates that a reduction in tree-ring widths in silver fir is a sensitive bioindicator of air pollution.
Terminology, that helps to organise research issues, is a significant component of each scientific discipline. In socio-economic geography, such expressions include concepts of a region, a city, or a social space. They are not disjunctive ideas – for example, we find a concept of an urban region where a social space can refer to a city, or a region, and at the same time regional, urban and social research can investigate these same areas. Concepts may also illustrate a specific model of an explanation in science, a particular stage of methodological development of the discipline, or a vision of the world. Bearing in mind the complexity of methodological issues, which is only briefly mentioned here, as well as a multiplicity of definitions of terminological concepts (region, city, social space), the author’s intention was to compare the premises of occurrence of the concepts and their consequences for the development of socio-economic geography. The increases in complexity of socio-economic changes as an effect of the overlapping processes of social modernization, restructuring of economic space, and suburbanization were itemised. The main research tool in this case is the deductive reasoning procedure leading to the generalization of the output of regional and urban research, as well as existing analyses of social space. The rationale for investigating the problem arose from the significance of the above-mentioned research, both the ones carried out during the previous stages of development of socio-economic geography as well as contemporary research trends. The crucial aspect here is the increase in complexity of these processes, and the spatial and functional structures leading to the transition from simple post-modernity to a risk society. Therefore, application of regional, urban and social research is also important, especially in the context of the process of depopulation, and “shrinkage” of cities and regions. It affects the possibilities of creating urban or regional policy. The rationale for investigating the problem also results from periodic necessity to synthesize the research on basic terminological issues, especially in the periods when changes of socio-economic and spatial conditions occur, and affect transformation of the existing set of the basic concepts.
The study attempts to uncover how people living in vulnerable areas address the relationship between the impacts of extreme weather events (floods) and fertility preference. The study selected a village, Sharat Pur from Sunamganj District, which is highly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of flooding. The study gathered information from 158 respondents by using a semi-structured questionnaire and in-depth interviews. With the small sample size the study used descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis. Findings show that there is still a preference for more sons to recover the damage caused from the impacts of floods. However, people think having a large family is a burden. They emphasize controlling family size through family planning programs and do not take into account the risk of children dying affecting their desire to have additional children. Therefore they consider having more children especially sons as a gift from God and the occurrence of flood events as the wish of God. The intention of the study is not to generalize findings but to comprehend the underlying mechanism between disaster events and fertility behavior. The study collected information from a very small sample size. Future studies might consider a large sample size and explore more deeply the mechanism between the different disaster events and fertility decisions by using a comparative analysis between regions vulnerable to different extreme weather events and not vulnerable to extreme weather events within Bangladesh, and comparing Bangladesh with other South Asian countries.
Oluwole Daramola, Oluwaseun Olowoporoku, Ademola Akanmu and Adewale Adejumo
This article examined sanitation behaviour among students’ of tertiary education institutions in southwest Nigeria. The study surveyed the behaviour of the students in the residential hostels across gender differences. A total of 125 students were selected for the survey using a systematic sampling technique. The study revealed that the majority 194 (96.8%) were below 28 years of age. Findings revealed that the number of occupants in a student room was higher than the number of students allocated to the room. Due to overpopulation in rooms within the hostels, the available sanitary installations are overstretched. The study found that the average per capita use of toilets and bathrooms in male and female hostels was 27 and 21 students respectively. The study reports on poor sanitation behaviour among the students in terms of washing of hands after defecation, hand cleaning materials used by the student after using the toilet, flushing the toilet after use, sanitary alternatives when the toilet is in a bad condition and cleaning of students’ rooms. It recommends a mind-set reorientation for the students about adequate sanitary behaviour through effective sanitation education and provision of adequate sanitary amenities to cater for the students residing in the hostels. The findings of this study will have implications for effective policy making on sanitation behaviour among students in tertiary education institutions with a similar background.
Oluwafemi Odunsi, Oluwole Daramola, Hazeez Agbabiaka, Oluwaseun Olowoporoku and Daniel Awodele
Managing environmental hazards in any environment is imperative as they are harmful phenomena, objects, behaviours, conditions or human activities which may result in loss of life, injury and other health impacts. Therefore, this article assessed how students’ socioeconomic attributes affect their ability to cope with issues of sanitary hazards in tertiary public education institutions in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study evaluated such relationships using a perceptual approach whereby socioeconomic characteristics of students and their responses to sanitary hazards were captured. Data were obtained through a questionnaire survey which was administered to each of the selected 367 students residing on campus in three tertiary institutions using probability sampling procedures. Data obtained were analysed using frequency distribution and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Findings revealed that students’ coping ability had significant variation with socioeconomic variability such as age of student (F (3,363)= 4.090, p = 0.007*), ethnicity (F (3,363)= 3.381, p = 0.018*) and childhood environment (F (2,364)= 7.207, p = 0.010*). Of which the effect size measures of these attributes as presented by the Eta-squared statistic indicated that each attribute of these socioeconomic variability [age (0.033), ethnicity (0.027) and childhood environment (0.038)] accounted for a medium magnitude of students’ coping ability. The study, however, concludes that students are in need of environmental sanitation education to provide the required health knowledge and safety precautions to ensure sanitary environments within the institutions.
Solmaz Zandi, Soleiman Mohammadi Limaei and Neda Amiri
The true economic value of ecosystem services may not be reflected in market transactions, because there is no real transaction for ecosystem services in the market. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the cost of time and travel to define the value people place on something in the absence of a market price. This study estimates the recreational value of Ghaleh Rudkhan forest park in the north of Iran using the individual travel cost method. This method is considered to be a substitute approach for the market. The data required were collected using questionnaires. Therefore, 271 questionnaires were randomly distributed between the visitors of the recreational site in 2016. In this study, a linear function is used to estimate the effects of explanatory variables including economic and social variables on the number of visits to estimate the recreational value of the forest park. Results showed that a consumer surplus of each person for their visit was 21500 Rials and the annual recreational value of the park was 78390595 Rials per ha. Furthermore, the variables such as travel expenses, income, distance, family size and visitor’s age are effective factors in the recreational use of the park. The results of this study can improve the quality of environmental services of the Ghaleh Rudkhan forest park and could expand the variety of services that they could supply based on the demand of the people.
This article discusses the influences of mechanized farming and industrialization on the Oromo traditional livelihood strategies and environment. Both qualitative and quantitative research approaches were employed for the study, specifically, observations, interviews, focus group discussions, case studies and surveys were used for data collection. The study revealed that, the traditional livelihood strategies of the Oromo and their environment are highly affected by mechanized farming and industrialization in the study area. These include the loss of crop land, the loss of pasture land, the loss of forest, the loss of water resources and other environmental damage. Moreover, it was found that people are not consulted in most cases about land expropriation for mechanized farming and industrialization; more often than not the community had no involvement at all. The whole process of land transfer was not disclosed to the local people and as a result, their traditional livelihood strategies were affected. The relationship between mechanized farming and industries, and local communities is not always harmonious. The community perceives industry and mechanized farming as their enemies. Consequently, mechanized farming and industries are kept safe by security forces. Correct environmental use by the local people in general and appropriate land use in particular is broken; fair water use is also ignored. Therefore, rather than favouring a few exploitative investors, the Government should empower the local community.