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Open access

Ágnes Veszelszki

Abstract

Fake news texts often show clear signs of the deceptive nature; still, they are shared by many users on Facebook. What could be the reason for this? The paper tries to answer the question by collecting the linguistic and non-linguistic characteristics of fake news. Linguistic characteristics include among others the exaggerating, sensational title, the eye-catching, tabloid-style text, the correct or incorrect use of terms, and the fake URLs imitating real websites; non-linguistic characteristics are expressive pictures often featuring celebrities, the use of all caps, excessive punctuation, and spelling mistakes. The corpus was compiled using snowball sampling: manipulative news not originating from big news portals were collected from the social networking website Facebook. The aim of the study is to identify the characteristics of Hungarian fake news in comparison to the English ones and to elaborate a system of aspects which help identify fake news.

Open access

Ana-Maria Gavrilă

Abstract

Art Spiegelman’s MAUS, a Pulitzer-prize-winning two-volume graphic novel, zooms into wartime Poland, interweaving young Vladek’s – the author’s father – experiences of World War II and the present day through uncanny visual and verbal representational strategies characteristic of the comics medium. “I’m literally giving a form to my father’s words and narrative”, Spiegelman remarks on MAUS, “and that form for me has to do with panel size, panel rhythms, and visual structures of the page”. The risky artistic strategies and the “strangeness” of its form, to use Harold Bloom’s term, are essential to how the author represents the horrors of the Holocaust: by means of anthropomorphic caricatures and stereotypes depicting Germans as cats, Jewish people as mice, Poles as pigs, and so on. Readings of MAUS often focus on the cultural connotations in the context of postmodernism and in the Holocaust literature tradition, diminishing the importance of its hybrid narrative form in portraying honest, even devastating events. Using this idea as a point of departure, along with a theoretical approach to traumatic memory and the oppressed survivor’s story, I will cover three main topics: the “bleeding” and re-building of history, in an excruciating obsession to save his father’s – a survivor of Auschwitz – story for posterity and to mend their alienating relationship and inability to relate; the connection between past and present, the traumatic subject, and the vulnerability it assumes in drawing and writing about life during the Holocaust as well as the unusual visual and narrative structure of the text. The key element of my study, as I analyse a range of sections of the book, focuses on the profound and astonishing strangeness of the work itself, which consequently assured MAUS a canonical status in the comics’ tradition.

Open access

Pier Cesare Rivoltella

Open access

György Molnár, Zoltán Szűts and Katalin Nagy

Abstract

In social context, a stranger can be identified as one who is excluded from a group. This group can sometimes have only a few members, while in other cases it can consist of a whole nation or of an entire society. From a digital perspective, there are two kinds of citizens: first, those who are members of the digital information society. They are able to take part in social and public communication on several levels. Their habits often make life easier, and the pace they live their lives at is faster than of those before them. They are the digital natives. Second, there are those who designed the digital world, but ironically they are the ones who do not really understand how it works in practice. They are the digital immigrants, the strangers. In our study, our key point is that digital immigrants, who have been in this world longer than the so-called digital natives, are perceived as strangers as they are in many ways excluded from today’s digital information society. The rituals of their daily interaction, routine, and media consumption as well as information gathering differ from those who are “full members” of the information society.

Open access

Usep Kustiawan

Abstract

Early Childhood is the beginning of basic skills development, and one such skill is the language skill. During this time, appropriate stimulus is required to assist the optimal development of children’s language skills, which includes the utilization of effective media learning in kindergarten. Field observation obtained by the researcher in Kindergarten PGRI 3 Tulusayu Tumpang Malang district showed that the only learning media currently used is in the form of visual utilities exhibited by the teacher and does not involve many children in the utilization. The purpose of this research and development is to produce an instructional media diorama that can be used as a language development tool for children in language skill group B. The learning media diorama is expected to help teachers to be more creative in using learning media as interactive game tools.

Open access

Orsolya Gergely

Abstract

The social learning theory emphasizes that model giving or guiding has always been one of the most powerful means for transmitting values, for demonstrating and accentuating the expected attitudes, habits, thinking, and behaviour (Bandura, 1986; Crosswhite et. al., 2003). Studies have shown that a role model could motivate a teenager’s sporting habits and performance in a positive way. They also found that the top athletes, those celebrities who appear frequently in the media, can become role models. Do Szekler teenagers have role models? Do they choose their role model from their physical environment or the international popular media stars or mediatized persons become their idolized model? We wanted to find out who those teenagers are from our region who choose as their role model a star, a famous person, a media celebrity – a well-known person but still a stranger for the teenagers of Szeklerland. If so, who are their icons and role models? Who are those people that have an exemplary behaviour in their eyes? To whom they would like to compare themselves when they grow up? And what are those characteristics which have decisive roles in choosing as role model a person they have never met before? The analysis is based on three important surveys conducted among teenagers from Romania (Covasna, Harghita, and Mureş counties). The surveys took place in the springs of 2012, 2014, and 2016. About two thousand pupils in the 7th and 11th grades were involved each time. On the basis of variables, such as age, gender, and type of residency, we will present general profiles and general types of Szekler teenagers regarding the role models of their choice.

Open access

Cristiana Ottaviano

Abstract

‘Gender Ideology’ (‘GI’), as an expression, appeared at the beginning of this century within documents of the Catholic Church with the aim of delegitimising what had been produced in the field of Gender Studies. That intent was strongly clarified, being coincident with the discussion in France about the law on equal marriage, during the protests of Manif pour Tous. Likewise, in Italy, oppositions to draft laws about homophobia and civil unions generated movements unified by the denouncing of ‘GI’. This essay presents research conducted between 2014 and 2017 about online materials of some Italian associations that are positioned as ‘GI opponents’. The content analysis underlines the use of a violent communication style that aims to create alarm and panic regarding presumed ‘gender drifts’ within social and educational contexts. This operation reveals the attempt to reaffirm an anthropological vision of sexuality based on the hierarchical–complementary relationship between male and female. The analysis highlights the risk of a sort of ‘Silence Spiral’, where – in the face of a noisy and violent minority – numerous and various voices disappear. These voices differentiate and invoke the urgency of a deeper debate about the concept of gender and its implications within educational, social and ecclesiastical contexts.

Open access

Marian Zhytaryuk and Victoria Zhytaryuk

Abstract

This article presents the analysis of thematic, historical and political spectrums of the “Ukrainian” content in the German newspapers and magazines of the interwar period. As a source base for this scientific work the authors analyze the newspaper and magazine journalism of that time, which allows not only to keep certain historical episodes (konstatives), but also (in some way) to reflect the views, needs, intentions, challenges, promises as well as German political and social factors in terms of disillusionment of Ukrainian patriotic forces (performatives). Nazism and Bolshevism skillfully used propaganda to achieve predatory targets, therefore it should be a lesson for the future generations, also the importance of conceptional media in Ukraine and Poland should increase.

Open access

Mykola Rashkevych

Abstract

The article presents a differentiation of connotations for the following numbers: one, two, three, four and five from the Dmytro Merezhkovsky’s journalistic program. The implicative nature of the numbers is already established. On its basis there is the synthesis of binary oppositions with religious and philosophical directions and additional extrapolation of the number system into Russian political and cultural areas in the first half of 20th century. The purpose of this article is to differentiate multiple connotations of author’s images and to demonstrate examples of their use. The subject of this study is also to show the ways of reality reflection in the symbolist journalism. The article presents numerical symbols in D. Merezhkovsky’s publicism.

Open access

Iurii Melnyk

Abstract

The article analyzes the reaction of German media to the assaults on women in Cologne and other German and European cities on New Year’s Eve 2015/2016. Nationwide TV channels and newspapers, with rare exceptions, did not report about the events till January 4 or even 5, causing outrage in social networks. This is serious evidence of deep problems in German and Western journalism. Due to the abundance of information resources, the mainstream media hold no monopoly on news delivery anymore. If they continue to compromise themselves, there is a danger of reorientation of the Western audience towards alternative sources of information: extremist Internet resources and foreign media, first of all the Russian ones.