The aim of this study is to evaluate the success of Brucella spp. isolation in ruminant abortion cases by using different selective media. To this end, 58 samples from ruminant abortion cases were utilized. 4 selective media; namely, Farrell Medium (FM), CITA Medium (CM), Modified Thayer Martin (MTM) and Jones & Morgan (JM) were preferred for isolation. In addition to these, one medium with antibiotics was used to extend the range of the results. Suspensions prepared from organ and fetal stomach contents were inoculated to media plates and incubated at 37C° for 5-8 days in 5-10% CO2 condition. Conventional biotyping method was used to identify Brucella isolates within the level of species and biovar. MTM (67.2%) and Farrell (65.5%) outperformed the other media with regards to isolation rate. However, regarding the inhibition ability against contaminant microrganisms, Farrell (86.2%) and CITA (72%) have the highest and second highest percentages respectively. The media’s inhibition ability was examined in the samples in which Brucella spp. isolation occurred to be able to investigate the correlations between isolation and inhibition. Lower isolation percentage was observed in the samples in which the media displayed the lowest inhibition ability against contaminants. In this context, using two different selective media with high inhibition ability against contaminants may be recommended to enhance the isolation rate. Moreover, the components stimulating the growth of Brucella strains might be added to the media to obtain better results.
Murat Genc, Omer Coban, Ugur Ozenturk and Omer Eltas
The aim of this study was to determine some morphological traits of the udder teat and their influence on the milk flow rate in three dairy cattle breeds (Brown Swiss, Holstein and Simmental). The average milking time and milk yield was 8.79±0.16 minutes and 9.40±0.28 kg, respectively. There was a finding that the breed of the dairy cows had no effect on the total milking time, with the Holstein cows having the highest milk yield (P<0.01). The average milk flow rate was 1.09±0.04 kg/minute and the Holstein cows had the highest milk flow rate (P<0.05). The cow parity didn’t affect the milk flow rate and the milk yield. The average teat length, average teat diameter and average teat volume varied among the cattle breeds and were highest in the Brown Swiss, and lowest in the Simmental cows. In conclusion, the milk flow rate varies among cattle breeds, and it was observed that dairy cows with high milk yields have higher milk flow rates.
Besir Jasari, Branko Atanasov, Irena Celeska, Miroslav Radeski, Martin Nikolovski and Toni Dovenski
Several reports indicated that a large proportion of dairy cows have not resumed cyclicity until day 60 after calving. These cows are traditionally classified as non-cycling (anoestrous or anovular cows). Static ovaries (SO, lack of luteal tissue and follicles >8 mm, and progesterone < 0.5 ng/mL) could be a possible underlying reason that contributes to a non-cycling status. Although SO affects both primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) cows, PP cows are more prone to be non-cycling than MP. Therefore, this study aims to compare the metabolic profiles and hormonal status between non-cycling PP and MP cows diagnosed with SO. One hundred and twenty one animals that did not express signs of oestrus until day 60 postpartum were grouped by parity (PP, n=58 and MP, n=63), then blood sampled and examined using transrectal ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected before the ultrasonographic examination. Out of those, 42 PP (72.4%) and 28 MP (44.4%) were diagnosed as non-cycling (bearing SO). Serum concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein and albumin did not differ between parity groups. The glucose concentrations in PP cows (1.43 ± 0.59 mmol/L) and MP cows (1.69 ± 0.71 mmol/L) did not differ, however, they were less than the normal physiological concentration. In addition, no differences were detected between parity groups for concentrations of NEFA, β-HBA, progesterone and estradiol. In summary, we concluded that non-cycling PP and MP cows bearing SO have similar hormonal status and metabolic profiles.
Madubuike Umunna Anyanwu, Ifeoma Chinyere Ugwu and Collins Uchenna Onah
This study was conducted to isolate generic extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacteria from horses in Nigeria, and to determine the antibacterial resistance profile. Rectal swabs were collected from 155, systematic randomly selected, apparently-healthy horses. Isolation of ESC-resistant enterobacteria was done using Mac Conkey agar with ceftazidime. ESBL production was assessed by combination disc method. Resistance of the isolates was determined using disc diffusion method. Out of 155 samples, 5.2% gave positive growth. From these, 11 ESC-resistant enterobacteria comprising of 36.4% E. coli, 36.4% Salmonella spp. and 27.2% Proteus spp., were obtained. From 11 isolates, 45.5% consisting of all the 4 E. coli and 1 Proteus isolates, were ESBL-producers, these were recovered from 4 (2.6%) out of the 155 horses sampled. Resistance of the E. coli isolates was 25% to aztreonam (AZT), 75% to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC), gentamicin (GEN), perfloxacin (PEF), and sulphamethoxazoletrimethoprim (SXT-TRI), 50% to ofloxacin (OFL) and 100% to ampicillin (AMP), ceftazidime (CTZ), cefotaxime (CTX), chloramphenicol (CHL), streptomycin (STR), tetracycline (TET), sparfloxacin (SPA), ciprofloxacin (CIP), norfloxacin (NOR) and enrofloxacin (ENR). Resistance of the Salmonella isolates was 50% to PEF and 100% to CTZ, CTX, AMP, AZT, AMC, CHL, GEN, STR, TET, SPA, CIP, OFL, NOR and ENR. Resistance of the Proteus isolates was 25% to AMC, CHL, STR, TET, SPA and NOR, and 100% to CTZ, CTX, AZT and AMP. Resistance of the isolates to more than 3 classes of antibacterial agents tested was 75% for Proteus and 100% for E. coli and Salmonella, respectively. This study showed that horses in Nigeria are potential reservoirs and disseminators of ESC-resistant and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae.
Michal Benc, Lazo Pendovski, Matej Murin, Frantisek Strejcek, Martin Morovic, Radek Prochazka and Jozef Laurincik
The nucleolus is the cell organelle responsible for ribosome synthesis and, hence, for protein synthesis. In the mammalian oocyte, the nucleolus compacts into a dense sphere with no ribosome synthesis well in advance of ovulation. It seems, that this body is of utmost importance for the development of the embryo. It is unknown, however, how it exerts this essential function. During the last two decades, great attention has been paid to the study of nucleogenesis in oocytes and early embryos, with transcription of ribosomal DNA being evaluated as one of the criteria of normal development. In this review, we summarize some aspects of nucleolus transformation during oocyte growth, as well as during early embryonic development with possible impact on the quality of the embryos used in biomedical research. This knowledge in connection with further observations will substantially contribute to the development of new criteria suitable for evaluation of oocytes and embryos used in biomedical application.
Dora Zelena, Ophelie Menant, Frederic Andersson and Elodie Chaillou
The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is less referred in relationship with emotions than other parts of the brain (e.g. cortex, thalamus, amygdala), most probably because of the difficulty to reach and manipulate this small and deeply lying structure. After defining how to evaluate emotions, we have reviewed the literature and summarized data of the PAG contribution to the feeling of emotions focusing on the behavioral and neurochemical considerations. In humans, emotions can be characterized by three main domains: the physiological changes, the communicative expressions, and the subjective experiences. In animals, the physiological changes can mainly be studied. Indeed, early studies have considered the PAG as an important center of the emotions-related autonomic and motoric processes. However, in vivo imaging have changed our view by highlighting the PAG as a significant player in emotions-related cognitive processes. The PAG lies on the crossroad of networks important in the regulation of emotions and therefore it should not be neglected. In vivo imaging represents a good tool for studying this structure in living organism and may reveal new information about its role beyond its importance in the neurovegetative regulation.
Ivica Gjurovski, Monika Dovenska, Aleksandar Janevski and Trpe Ristoski
The illegal poisoning of dogs and other domestic and wild animals presents a worldwide problem causing animal suffering and R. Macedonia is not an exeption. The goal of this study is to make a comparison of the results from the histopathological examination conducted among poisoned dogs in the Republic of Macedonia. Morphological and histopathological changes in poisoned dogs were investigated for a period of 10 years. The examination was performed on 31 dogs, 13 of which were home kept, 7 were street dogs and 11 of unknown origin. The most significant necropsy findings concerned the inflammatory and necrotic processes of the gastrointestinal tract. The histopathological changes were mainly located in the kidneys, stomach, intestines and the lungs.
Laura M. L. Carvalho, Fernando M. dos Reis, Ana Lucia Candido, Fernanda F. C. Nunes, Claudia N. Ferreira and Karina B. Gomes
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, amenorrhea, and polycystic ovaries. This endocrinopathy is associated with many metabolic disorders such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular complications. Inflammation is likely to play an important role in the promoting these metabolic imbalances, while prothrombotic and pro-oxidative mechanisms further contribute to the cardiovascular risk of these patients. The etiology of PCOS is still not fully understood, but there is evidence of genetic and environmental components. This review aims to discuss some molecular pathways associated with PCOS that could contribute to the better understanding about this syndrome. Recent evidence suggests that intrauterine exposure of female mice to an excess of anti-Müllerian hormone may induce PCOS features in their post-natal life. High cytokine levels and cytokine gene polymorphisms also appear to be associated with the pathophysiology of PCOS. Furthermore, high levels of microparticles may contribute to the altered hemostasis and enhanced inflammation in PCOS. All these mechanisms may be relevant to clarify some aspects of PCOS pathogenesis and inspire new strategies to prevent the syndrome as well as treat its symptoms and mitigate the risk of long-term complications.
Gorica Popova, Dean Jankuloski, Benjamin Felix, Katerina Boskovska, Biljana Stojanovska-Dimzovska, Velibor Tasic and Katerina Blagoevska
Escherichia coli infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat because of emerging antimicrobial resistance, mostly to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, due to the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs).Despite extensive studies of ESBL- producing E.coli in adult patients, there is a lack of information about the epidemiology and spread of ESBL organisms in pediatric population. The aim of this study was to examine the gastrointestinal tract as an endogenous reservoir for the respiratory tract colonization with ESBL- E. coli in children, hospitalized because of the severity of the respiratory illness. The study group consists of 40 children with ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from the sputum and from the rectal samples. A control group of 15 E. coli isolated from rectal swabs of healthy children were included in the analysis. The comparison of the strains was done by using antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the stains, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis was performed for molecular typing, using XbaI digestion. 90% of the compared pairs of strains in the study group were with identical antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and indistinguishable in 79.2% by the obtained PFGE – profiles.33.3% (5/15) of confirmed E. coli strains from the control group were found to be ESBL – producers. Resulting band profiles of all isolates demonstrated presence of 12 pulsotypes, with 100% similarity within the pulsotypes. Although, some isolates obtained from different patients were genetically indistinguishable, these strains were not hospital acquired, as none of the patients satisfied the criteria for hospital acquired pneumonia, and there was a lack of an obvious transmission chain. All ESBL –E. coli isolated from sputum in clinical cases were obtained from patients under the age of one. According to the resistance profile of the compared pairs and the PFGE comparison of all isolates, it can be concluded that the gastrointestinal tract is the main reservoir of ESBL-E. coli. Small age in infants is a risk factor for translocation of bacteria, enabling the colonization of the respiratory tract.
Mervat Z. Mohamed, Heba M. Hafez, Hanaa H. Mohamed and Nagwa M. Zenhom
Objective. We aimed to assess the protective role of verapamil, L-type calcium channel blockers, against early lung damage in diabetic rats. Lung injury has recently been recognized as a consequent complication of diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycemia induces inflammatory changes in lung tissue early in the disease. Methods. Twenty four adult male rats were grouped into control, diabetic, diabetic treated with verapamil, and verapamil control. Streptozotocin (STZ) was used to induce diabetes. Oxidative parameters and antioxidative mechanisms were assessed in lung homogenate. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) protein was measured as a pro-inflammatory mediator. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) gene expression and nuclear erythroid factor 2 (Nrf2) immunoexpression were screened. Results. The lung showed oxidative damage and inflammatory infiltration in STZ diabetic rats early at 2 weeks. The parameters significantly improved in lung tissue treated with verapamil. Histopathology of the lung tissue confirmed the results. Inhibition of STAT3/TNFα pathway was involved in the protection offered by verapamil. Activation of Nrf2 together with an increasing antioxidant capacity of diabetic lung significantly ameliorates the injury induced by diabetes. Conclusions. Verapamil afforded protection in diabetic lung injury. The protection was mediated by the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of verapamil.