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Open access

Guven Baris Cansu, B. Taskiran, T. Bakar and B.P. Cengiz

Abstract

Objective. Suture granuloma, the rare complication of thyroidectomy, results from the use of nonabsorbable suture materials. Despite its typical ultrasound images and benign course, it carries utmost importance in the diff erential diagnosis of lymph nodes, recurrent nodules, and recurrence in the case of thyroid cancers.

Subject and Results. Fifty four years old female patient, who underwent bilateral thyroidectomy in July 2010, was diagnosed with multinodular goiter and incidentally discovered micropapillary carcinoma (2 mm). Four years later, she was readmitted to hospital due to painless swelling in the right and left anterior neck region. Ultrasonography revealed nodules with irregular boundaries, containing micro- and macro-calcifications and hyperechoic lines in both sides of the thyroid bed and isthmus. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed in the right and left sided mass and the cytological examination was compatible with the diagnosis of the suture granuloma.

Conclusions. Suture granuloma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the local recurrence

Open access

Dana Macejova, L. Toporova and J. Brtko

Abstract

Retinoic acid (RA), an active form of vitamin A, regulates the embryonic development, male and female reproduction and induces important effects on the cell development, proliferation, and differentiation. These effects are mediated by the retinoid (RAR) and rexinoid nuclear receptors (RXR), which are considered to be a ligand-activated, DNA-binding, trans-acting, and transcription-modulating proteins, involved in a general molecular mechanism responsible for the transcriptional responses in target genes. Organotin compounds are typical environmental contaminants and suspected endocrine disrupting substances. They may affect processes of reproductive system in mammals, predominantly via nuclear receptor signaling pathways. Triorganotins, such as tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) and triphenyltin chloride (TPTCl), are capable to bind to RXR molecules, and thus represent potent agonists of RXR subtypes of nuclear receptors not sharing any structural characteristics with endogenous ligands of nuclear receptors. Th is article summarizes selected effects of biologically active retinoids and rexinoids on both male and female reproduction and also deals with the effects of organotin compounds evoking endocrine disrupting actions in reproduction.

Open access

L. Pecenova and Robert Farkas

Abstract

Classical non-peptide hormones, such as steroids, retinoids, thyroid hormones, vitamin D3 and their derivatives including prostaglandins, benzoates, oxysterols, and bile acids, are collectively designated as small lipophilic ligands, acting via binding to the nuclear receptors (NRs). The NRs form a large superfamily of transcription factors that participate virtually in every key biological process. They control various aspects of animal development, fertility, gametogenesis, and numerous metabolic pathways, and can be misregulated in many types of cancers. Their enormous functional plasticity, as transcription factors, relates in part to NR-mediated interactions with plethora of coregulatory proteins upon ligand binding to their ligand binding domains (LBD), or following covalent modification. Here, we review some general views of a specific group of NR coregulators, so-called nuclear receptor coactivators (NRCs) or steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) and highlight some of their unique functions/roles, which are less extensively mentioned and discussed in other reviews. We also try to pinpoint few neglected moments in the cooperative action of SRCs, which may also indicate their variable roles in the hormone-independent signaling pathways.

Open access

D.O. Minchenko, O.O. Riabovol, D.O. Tsymbal, O.O. Ratushna and O.H. Minchenko

Abstract

Objective. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the effect of inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling, mediated by IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1), which is a central mediator of the unfolded protein response on the expression of genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and some related proteins (SGK1, SGK3, NCOA1, NCOA2, ARHGAP35, NNT) and their hypoxic regulation in U87 glioma cells for evaluation of their possible significance in the control of the glioma growth.

Methods. The expression of NR3C1,SGK1,SGK3, NCOA1, NCOA2, ARHGAP35, and NNT genes in U87 glioma cells, transfected by empty vector pcDNA3.1 (control) and cells without IRE1 signaling enzyme function (transfected by dnIRE1) upon hypoxia, was studied by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results. Inhibition of IRE1 signaling enzyme function up-regulates the expression of NR3C1, SGK1, NCOA1, NCOA2, ARHGAP35, and NNT genes in U87 glioma cells in comparison with the control glioma cells, with more significant changes for NR3C1, SGK1, and NNT genes. At the same time, the expression of SGK3 gene is strongly down-regulated in glioma cells upon inhibition of IRE1. We have also shown that hypoxia increases the expression of NR3C1, SGK1, NCOA2, ARHGAP35, and NNT genes but decreases SGK3 and NCOA1 genes expression in control glioma cells. Moreover, the inhibition of both enzymatic activities (kinase and endoribonuclease) of IRE1 in U87 glioma cells enhances the eff ect of hypoxia on the expression of SGK1, SGK3, and NNT genes, but decreases the sensitivity of NR3C1 gene to hypoxic condition. Furthermore, the expression of NCOA1 gene is resistant to hypoxia in control glioma cells, but NCOA2 and ARHGAP35 genes are resistant to this condition in glioma cells without functional activity of IRE1 signaling enzyme.

Conclusions. Results of this investigation demonstrate that inhibition of IRE1 signaling enzyme function affects the expression of NR3C1, SGK1, SGK3, NCOA1, NCOA2, ARHGAP35, and NNT genes in U87 glioma cells in gene specific manner and that all these genes are regulated by hypoxia preferentially through IRE1 signaling pathway of the endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Open access

Havva Keskin, Y. Kaya, K. Cadirci, C. Kucur, E. Ziypak, E. Simsek, H. Gozcu, S. Arikan and A. Carlioglu

Abstract

Objective. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), determined from peripheral blood, is accepted as an available and practical indicator of the systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the NLR was higher in euthyroid chronic autoimmune thyreotidis (CAT) patients compared to a healthy control group.

Methods. A total of 112 patients were enrolled in this study, including 59 patients with euthyroid CAT on any form of therapy and 53 healthy controls. Th e CAT patients were similar in age to the healthy control group (mean 33.9±12.8 years versus 30.2±12.4 years, p=0.10). Measurements were available for the white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, C-reactive protein (CRP), thyroid peroxidase immune antibody (anti-TPO), and anti-thyroglobulin immune antibody (anti-TG). The NLR and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were calculated. Differences between the CAT and control groups were tested using the student’s t-test and the correlations were determined using Pearson’s correlation coefficients.

Results. There were no differences between the CAT and control groups for WBCs (7.9±0.3 and 7.4±0.2, respectively; p=0.1) or neutrophils (5.5±0.3 and 5.4±1.1; p=0.9), but lymphocytes were higher in the CAT group (3.1±0.5 vs. 2.04±0.1; p=0.05) as was the NLR (4.0±0.7 vs. 2.0±0.1; p=0.01). Th e NLR was positively correlated with CRP (r=0.6, p<0.001), anti-TPO (r=0.3, p<0.001), anti-TG (r=0.3, p=0.006), WBCs (r=0.4, p<0.001), and the PLR (r=0.73, p<0.001). The PLR was also higher in the CAT than the control group (p=0.02).

Conclusions. In this study, we found that NLR values were higher in euthyroid CAT patients than in a healthy control group and that NLR correlated with autoantibodies used to diagnose the disease.

Open access

P. Vargovic, G. Manz and R. Kvetnansky

Abstract

Objective. Continuous exposure to cold leads to an activation of adaptive thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue and induction of brown/beige cell phenotype in the white adipose tissue. Thermogenic response is associated with alternatively activated macrophages producing catecholamines, which subsequently activate the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). The aim of this work was to elucidate the effect of cold exposure on catecholamine and immune responses associated with adipocyte browning in the mesenteric adipose tissue (mWAT) of rat.

Methods. The rats were exposed to continuous cold (4 °C) for 1 or 7 days. Catecholamines production and gene expressions of inflammatory and other factors, related to adipocyte “browning”, were analyzed in the homogenized mWAT samples using 2-CAT ELISA kits.

Results. Cold exposure induced a sympathetic response in the mWAT, evidenced by the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein level rise. Induction of non-sympathetical catecholamine production was observed 7 days after cold exposure by elevated TH and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT) expression, leading to an increased epinephrine levels. Cold exposure for 7 days stimulated the infiltration of macrophages, evaluated by F4/80 and CD68 expressions, and expression of anti-inflammatory mediators, while pro-inflammatory cytokines were inhibited. Anti- inflammatory response, accompanied by de novo catecholamine production and up-regulation of β3-adrenergic receptors, led to the stimulation of UCP-1 and PGC1α expression, suggesting a cold-induced “browning” of the mWAT, mediated by alternatively activated macrophages.

Conclusions. The present data indicate that prolonged cold exposure may induce anti-inflammatory response in mWAT associated with induction of UCP-1 expression. Although functional thermogenesis in the mWAT is most likely redundant, a highly efficient dissipation of energy by UCP1 may affect the energy homeostasis in this visceral fat.

Open access

Hakki Yilmaz, M. Cakmak, B. Ceydilek, C. Demir and A. Aktas

Abstract

Objective. Interleukin-35 (IL-35), an interleukin-12 (IL-12) cytokine family member, is shown to be a potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory cytokine. Inducible regulatory T cells (Tregs) produce IL-35 that mediates the immune inhibitory function of Tregs. Growing evidence revealed that upregulation of IL-35 expression may play a critical role in the prevention of autoimmune diseases in various experimental autoimmunity models and vice versa. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is considered to be a Treg cell-related autoimmune disease with loss of self-tolerance.

Methods. One hundred-twenty eight subjects, newly diagnosed hypothyroid HT patients [56 overt (Group 1), 72 subclinical hypothyroid (Group 2)] and 38 healthy controls (Group 3) were enrolled in the study. The levels of serum IL-35 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results. Serum IL-35 levels were lower in the HT group when compared with subclinical HT group [304.5 (834.6) pg/ml vs. 636.1 (1542.0) pg/ml, p=0.004] and control cases [304.5 (834.6) pg/ml vs. 1064.7 (2526.8) pg/ml, p<0.001]. Serum IL-35 levels were inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH; rs=-0.396, p<0.001) and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb; rs=-0.571, p<0.001) in whole group. Serum IL-35 were negatively associated with TSH (rs=-0.264, p=0.003) and TPOAb (rs=-0.735, p<0.001) in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (Group 1 + Group 2).

Conclusion. The results suggest that IL-35 may play a role in the pathogenesis of HT.

Open access

K. Voglova, J. Bezakova and Iveta Herichova

Abstract

Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory molecules of increasing biologists’ interest. miRNAs, unlikely mRNA, do not encode proteins. It is a class of small double stranded RNA molecules that via their seed sequence interact with mRNA and inhibit its expression. It has been estimated that 30% of human gene expression is regulated by miRNAs. One miRNA usually targets several mRNAs and one mRNA can be regulated by several miRNAs. miRNA biogenesis is realized by key enzymes, Drosha and Dicer. miRNA/mRNA interaction depends on binding to RNA-induced silencing complex. Today, complete commercially available methodical proposals for miRNA investigation are available. There are techniques allowing the identification of new miRNAs and new miRNA targets, validation of predicted targets, measurement of miRNAs and their precursor levels, and validation of physiological role of miRNAs under in vitro and in vivo conditions. miRNAs have been shown to influence gene expression in several endocrine glands, including pancreas, ovary, testes, hypothalamus, and pituitary.

Open access

K. Voglova, J. Bezakova and Iveta Herichova

Abstract

Micro RNAs (miRNAs) represent a newly discovered class of regulatory molecules in the human body. miRNA is a short double stranded RNA sequence interfering with mRNA, causing in most cases, inhibition of translation. Synthesis of miRNAs shows an increasing developmental pattern and postnatally miRNAs are synthesized in all cells possessing transcriptional machinery. miRNAs usually target several mRNAs and therefore conclusive evidences proving their functions are not always ease to be acquired. In spite of this difficulty, functions of miRNAs were firmly established in the development, the cardiovascular and neural diseases, and cancer. Many miRNAs have been reported to be associated with physiological state of cells and/or tissues. This finding becomes fundamental, especially when consider that these miRNAs can be released from cell into intracellular space or circulation. Correlation between miRNA production in tissues and its contribution to multisource miRNA pool in the circulation is in a focus of biomarker-oriented researchers. Recently, circulating miRNAs have been suggested to be applicable as biomarkers in several types of cancer, cardiovascular injury, and diabetes. Role of miRNAs in the organism intercellular signaling is still under the broad investigation. Several miRNA mimics, intended for treatment of disease, are being currently tested in the clinical trials.

Open access

Z. Lestanova, Z. Bacova and Jan Bakos

Abstract

The present knowledge, regarding the neuronal growth and neurite extension, includes neuropeptide action in the central nervous system. Research reports have brought much information about the multiple intracellular signaling pathways of neuropeptides. However, regardless of the differences in the local responses elicited by neuropeptides, there exist certain functional similarities in the effects of neuropeptides, mediated by their receptors. In the present review, data of the relevant studies, focused on G protein-coupled receptors activated by neuropeptides, are summarized. Particularly, receptors that activate phosphatidylinositol-calcium system and protein kinase C pathways, resulting in the reorganization of the neuronal cytoskeleton and changes in the neuronal morphology, are discussed. Based on our data received, we are showing that oxytocin increases the gene expression of GTPase cell division cycle protein 42 (Cdc42), implicated in many aspects of the neuronal growth and morphology. We are also paying a special attention to neurite extension and retraction in the context of neuropeptide regulation.