Browse

You are looking at 71 - 80 of 2,828 items for :

  • Linguistics and Semiotics x
Clear All
Open access

Agata Savary, Silvio Ricardo Cordeiro, Timm Lichte, Carlos Ramisch, Uxoa Iñurrieta and Voula Giouli

Abstract

Multiword expressions can have both idiomatic and literal occurrences. For instance pulling strings can be understood either as making use of one’s influence, or literally. Distinguishing these two cases has been addressed in linguistics and psycholinguistics studies, and is also considered one of the major challenges in MWE processing. We suggest that literal occurrences should be considered in both semantic and syntactic terms, which motivates their study in a treebank. We propose heuristics to automatically pre-identify candidate sentences that might contain literal occurrences of verbal VMWEs, and we apply them to existing treebanks in five typologically different languages: Basque, German, Greek, Polish and Portuguese. We also perform a linguistic study of the literal occurrences extracted by the different heuristics. The results suggest that literal occurrences constitute a rare phenomenon. We also identify some properties that may distinguish them from their idiomatic counterparts. This article is a largely extended version of Savary and Cordeiro (2018).

Open access

Koji Arikawa

Abstract

Graph theory, which quantitatively measures the precise structure and complexity of any network, uncovers an optimal force balance in sentential graphs generated by the computational procedures of human natural language (CHL). It provides an alternative way to evaluate grammaticality by calculating ‘feature potential’ of nodes and ‘feature current’ along edges. An optimal force balance becomes visible by expressing ‘feature current’ through different point sizes of lines. Graph theory provides insights into syntax and contradicts Chomsky’s current proposal to discard tree notations. We propose an error minimization hypothesis for CHL: a good sentential network possesses an error-free self-organized force balance. CHL minimizes errors by (a) converting bottom-up flow (structure building) to top-down flow (parsing), (b) removing head projection edges, (c) preserving edges related to feature checking, (d) deleting DPmovement trajectories headed by an intermediate copy, (e) ensuring that covert wh-movement trajectories have infinitesimally small currents and conserving flow directions, and (f) robustly remedying a gap in wh-loop by using infinitesimally inexpensive wh-internally-merged (wh- IM) edge with the original flow direction. The CHL compels the sensorimotor (SM) interface to ground nodes so that Kirchhoff’s current law (a fundamental balance law) is satisfied. Internal merges are built-in grounding operations at the CHL–SM interface that generate loops and optimal force balance in sentential networks.

Open access

Pavel Vondřička

Abstract

The paper proposes design of a generic database for multiword expressions (MWE), based on the requirements for implementation of the lexicon of Czech MWEs. The lexicon is aimed at different goals concerning lexicography, teaching Czech as a foreign language, and theoretical issues of MWEs as entities standing between lexicon and grammar, as well as for NLP tasks such as tagging and parsing, identification and search of MWEs, or word sense and semantic disambiguation. The database is designed to account for flexibility in morphology and word order, syntactic and lexical variants and even creatively used fragments. Current state of implementation is presented together with some emerging issues, problems and solutions.

Open access

Sean Murphy

Abstract

The language of Early Modern texts can potentially reveal a lot about Shakespeare’s language. In this paper I describe the creation of a genre classification scheme for a segment of Early English Books Online – Text Creation Partnership (EEBO-TCP), covering the period 1560–1640. This categorisation permits meaningful comparison of the language of Shakespeare with that of his contemporaries and makes an integral contribution to The Encyclopaedia of Shakespeare’s Language project at Lancaster University. I outline the rationale behind the scheme, describe preliminary automatic genre classification work and present the prototype approach adopted for this categorisation. I also provide specific examples of classification in practice and discuss internal and external factors which influenced genre selection. I finish by suggesting how a range of scholars might benefit from this research.

Open access

Stanisław Goźdź-Roszkowski

Abstract

This paper investigates the interplay between judicial argumentation and evaluative or emotive language identified in two US Supreme Court landmark cases on the right of same-sex couples to marry. The analysis of both majority and dissenting opinions leads to two main observations. First, marriage and liberty are indeed emotive words and they represent two major sites of contention between the concurring and dissenting judges. Second, there are important differences within the argumentative strategies employed by the judges. While (re)defining the concepts remains the major argumentative goal for both types of opinion, the majority opinions tacitly integrate the redefined concept of marriage into their argumentation. It is the dissenting opinions that explicitly raise the issue of (re)definition in order to defend and retain the original sense of marriage.

Open access

Martin Hinton

Abstract

This paper has a dual purpose: it both seeks to introduce the other works in this issue by illustrating how they are related to the field of argumentation as a whole, and to make clear the tremendous range of research currently being carried out by argumentation theorists which is concerned with the interaction and inter-reliance of language and argument. After a brief introduction to the development of the field of argumentation, as many as eight language-based approaches to the study of argument are identified, taking as their perspective: rhetoric, argument structure, argument as act, discourse analysis, corpus methods, emotive argument, and narrative argument. The conclusion makes it clear that these branches of study are all themselves interconnected and that it is the fusion of methodologies and theory from linguistics and the philosophical study of argument which lends this area of research its dynamism.

Open access

Tamás Fekete and Ádám Porkoláb

Abstract

In this article we would like to examine an area of onomastics that has not received much scholarly attention. We aim to provide an adequate linguistic analysis of the place-names found in The Elder Scrolls (ES) video game series. For our analysis, we rely chiefly on the methods of linguistic statistics, which have not yet gained widespread use in onomastic research. Our goal is to give a boost to linguistic and onomastic research into video games and to develop related aspects of its research methodology. Two main methods of place-name formation can be observed in our results: one is when the fictional names are coined on the basis of the lexical elements of already existing non-fictional languages (we call these mimetic names), and the other is when the game developers create so-called speaking names. In our article we demonstrate that the toponyms of the ES universe in part conform to the conventions of non-fictional place-name formation (e.g. they can be sorted into the two main categories of habitative names and topographical names), and in part they contradict such conventions, because around 14 percent of the names we analyzed are purposefully coined as semantically obscure toponyms, which does not happen in the case of non-fictional names.

Open access

Jean H. M. Wagemans

Abstract

This paper provides a theoretical rationale for distinguishing four basic argument forms. On the basis of a survey of classical and contemporary definitions of argument, a set of assumptions is formulated regarding the linguistic and pragmatic aspects of arguments. It is demonstrated how these assumptions yield four different argument forms: (1) first-order predicate arguments, (2) first-order subject arguments, (3) second-order subject arguments, and (4) second-order predicate arguments. These argument forms are then further described and illustrated by means of concrete examples, and it is explained how they are visually represented in the Periodic Table of Arguments.