Historical radial increment data based on tree ring analyses from the close-to-nature experimental forest management unit Smolnícka Osada in Central Slovakia were used for retrospective modelling of changes in forest dynamics to estimate the sensitivity of management planning goals under climate change. Four example years representing historical periods with typically different species-specific patterns of radial increment in mixed beech-fir-spruce forest (1910, 1950, 1980, and 2014) served as virtual starting points for the modelling. An advanced density-dependent matrix transition model was utilised for modelling stand dynamics. An integrated tool for nonlinear financial optimisation searched for an optimal management equilibrium. In addition to transition probabilities adjusted from increment data, some assumptions for changes in ingrowth and mortality related to the increment, as well as a case study concerning the reduced ingrowth changed by game browsing intensity, were tested for modelling more realistic historical ecological conditions. The sensitivity study revealed changes in the optimal management equilibrium represented by optimal basal area, tree species composition, diameter distribution and target harvest diameter over time due to the adapted ecological modelling. The main lesson of the past for the future is to avoid placing too much trust in the simple extrapolation of current trends, such as the observed continual decline in spruce related to climate change, but to be aware of temporal and possibly reversible processes, such as the observed extensive fir recovery after the reduction of air pollution. Tree species diversity appears to be the best option for the uncertain future.
In this study, we have determined the main important physical and chemical properties of municipal sewage sludge and compared them to the requirements of the Finnish Fertilizer Product Act and Fertilizer Product Decree in order to assess the potential utilization of this by-product as a fertilizer. Except for Hg (1.4 mg/kg d.m.), the total concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr and As in our sewage sludge were lower that the Finnish maximum permissible heavy metal concentrations for sewage sludge used as a fertilizer products. However, the sewage sludge may be utilized as a soil improver, a growing media or as a fertilizer product in landfill sites (e.g. surface structures) or in other closed industrial areas, because the above mentioned Finnish limit values are not applied at these sites. If the sewage sludge is to be utilized in these kinds of areas, an environmental permit may be needed. According to BCR-extraction, the lowest release potential (solubility) from the sample matrix was observed for sulphur (58.4 %) and the highest for Cd (100 %).
In recent years solar-thermal methods of waste biomass conversion are promptly gaining on attention. For researchers working in areas that suffer from lack of natural solar power, the choice of proper solar simulator for the study is crucial. Solar simulator consist of artificial light source enclosed in proper housing with optical and cooling system, powered by dedicated power supply. Solar simulators are not only granting independence from external conditions, yet provide possibility of research expand due to tuneable output power and emissive spectrum. Over the years, solar simulators were powered by different types of lamps. Throughout the history, the solar simulators were used mainly in photovoltaic and space research, crystal growth industry, and the material testing. For mentioned purposes, the total thermal output power of simulator was playing secondary role in comparison to urgent need of spectral match, irradiance distribution and beam uniformity with terrestrial or extra-terrestrial sunlight. For thermal applications, solar simulators are facing the challenge of providing high output power, described by high radiant heat flux and high heat flux density over the specified target area. In presented paper the comparison of xenon arc, metal halide lams and tungsten halogen for thermal applications has been presented with emphasis on available thermal power, spectral match with natural sunlight and operational issues. The course of decision taken during the selection of artificial light source for construction of laboratory-scale solar pyrolytic reactor is proposed.
The performance of electrothermal vaporization (ETV) and laser ablation (LA) of dry aerosols as sample introduction systems for microwave induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP OES) are compared and evaluated in terms of detection limits, precision and accuracy for the determination of trace elements (Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sr, Zn) in the same solid micro samples. In MIP OES both radiation sources can be independently adjusted to optimize the sampling process and then its subsequent excitation. A univariate approach and simplex optimization procedure were used to obtain the best signal/noise (S/N) ratio and derive analytical figures of merit. A comparison using a Student’s t-test between the results obtained by both ETV/LA-MIP OES methods for trace elements, and concentrations in standard reference material (SRM) and certified reference materials (CRMs) showed that there was no significant differences on a 95 % confidence level. The detection limits of the tested elements in solid samples by ETV/LA-MIP OES were in the range of 0.1 to 11 µg g−1 for all elements determined, while the corresponding absolute values in the range of ng. The precision of the results for ETV-MIP OES and LA-MIP OES varied between 2 and 4 % and 3 and 7 %, respectively. The linear dynamic ranges in the ETV/LA-MIP OES are extend over three decades of concentration. The methods were validated by the analysis of NIST SRM 2711Montana Soil, NRCC CRM PACS-2 Marine Sediment and NRCC CRM TORT-2 Lobster Hepatopancreas of different matrix composition and by the standard addition technique.
New Member States have been part of the Single market since joining the European Union in 2004. This step brought various challenges in each of these countries because of appreciable difference in competitiveness compared to old EU Member States. This article puts to the test the competitiveness of the Czech meat industry. This is one of the most important parts of the agri-food production, which is still a very important part of regional economics in less developed regions. Thus, it represents cultural heritage of the countryside. The main aim is to investigate specific branches of the Czech meat industry according to their competitiveness on the Single market. In the article, we make conclusion on different states of the competitiveness of three main branches of the Czech meat industry, which represents 85.6% of the overall meat export. Conducted research provided information on positive change in the export during the observed period of time, but the comparison of absolute export and import numbers did not refer to a positive development of the Czech meat industry. Furthermore, we observed tendency to locate meat production near local markets and in developed regions.
Katarína Demková, Martin Hais and Magda Edwards-Jonášová
Landscape structure is determined by human activities and natural processes. Despite both influences are described in many studies, there remains still question, how the landscape structure reflects the individual socio-economic predictors. To answer this question we compared landscape structure, with emphasis on non-forest woody vegetation, of two states, however, with common socio-economic and political history. Non-forest woody vegetation represents characteristic feature in rural landscape, which increases water retention, biodiversity and bio-migration using green structures. In our study we supposed, that non-forest woody vegetation will have high sensitivity to societal changes and nature conservation measures. On an example of border region in former Czechoslovakia we compared three classes of non-forest woody vegetation (solitaires, patches and linear elements) in three time horizons (1950, 1986, 2011). The most significant differences in spatial structure of non-forest woody vegetation between countries were in the number and area of solitaires, which decreased during the entire period. However, the largest solitaire decrease was in 1950-1986, mainly in correspondence with socialist collective farming. Moreover, the decrease was higher in the Slovak part compared to the Czech part. The primary reason for this was the removal of non-forest woody vegetation on one side and the joining crowns into bigger patches on the other side. The current trend of increasing area of patch and linear elements is related to natural succession. We assume that the main drivers of different development in non-forest woody vegetation in the border region after the split of Czechoslovakia were different management measures applied in nature and landscape conservation and social development.
Europe witnessed massive migration away from rural areas throughout the 20th century. Spain was no exception to the rule, albeit with differences in timing and pace, and the population in Cantabria constitutes a paradigmatic case. Here, the rural exodus began early – before the mid-20th century – in some mountainous districts, but reached a peak in the 1960s and continued throughout the following decades. Since the 1990s, population levels in rural municipalities have fallen at a slower rate, while the population of the region as a whole has increased slightly. Disturbingly, the rural population has continued to decline in the early 21st century, in an overall context of almost zero population growth. The demographic trends analyzed here are not only different in time, but also in space. With the partial exception of regional capitals and their neighbouring communities, municipalities in mountain districts have witnessed such a substantial decline in their populations that they have experienced a genuine process of depopulation. This case does not explain the all-similar cases in rural Europe as a whole, but it can help in interpreting other comparable processes in different regions of southern Europe where depopulation reached its maximum in the second half of the 20th century and still continues today.
Storm-water management is a common concern in rural catchments where development-related growth causes increases of storm-water flows. Greater magnitude and frequency of storm-water create greater challenges for mitigating storm-water damage and improving water quality. The concept of Blue-Green Infrastructure (BGI) as a solution incorporates a wide range of applicable components with the aim of minimizing the effect of catchment development on flow regimes without changing the watershed morphology. BGI components manage storm-water by decreasing impermeable cover and expanding natural and semi-natural systems to store water or recharge and filter storm-water into the ground. In this paper, guidelines for designing a pond as a component of BGI are provided and, configuration and size of the pond are determined. Moreover, the impacts of the designed pond on storm-water peak flow and quality are assessed for the Tarwin catchment, State of Victoria, Australia. The results indicate that the introduction of the pond would have reduced outfall inflow by 94 % and would have achieved the reduction of 88.3, 75.5 and 50.7 % for total suspended solids, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen respectively, during the extreme weather event in June 2012.
In recent decades, there has been an increase in the work speed and breadth of agricultural technology used to mow grasses. This modernization has resulted in a decline in wildlife. There are several conventional ways to prevent these losses. The most well-known and simplest technique is to search for wild animals using dogs and a phalanx. The dogs are trained to systematically search the area and drive the animals out. Efficiency is increased when visiting a site regularly, thus disturbing the animals, which are then consequently less likely to fawn. The effectiveness of the swarm line depends on the number of participants involved. The recommended spacing is set at 1–3 m. An effective modern means seems to be the use of an unmanned system and thermal cameras. This article presents a proof of concept of a detection system that is capable of detecting the object searched for in grassy vegetation with more than 96% success, regardless of the flight level. The study contributes to automated detection based on the basic principles of threshold.
S. Fallahizadeh, R. Arjmand, A. Jelowdar, A. Rafiei and F. Kazemi
Echinococosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stages of Echinococcus spp. that occurs in most parts of the world. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the genotypes of isolated hydatid cysts from slaughtered animals in Shush county, southwestern Iran. Totally, 96 hydatid cysts were collected, including 11 buffaloes, 13 cattle, 12 goat and 60 sheep. The PCR was done by a primer pair (BDI and 4s) to amplify ITS1 fragment. Four restriction endonucleases including AluI, HpaII, RsaI, and TaqI were used for RFLP products and enzymatic reactions were electrophoresed. Finally, twenty PCR products were sent for sequencing and phylogenetic tree was drawn with MEGA6. Molecular identification of 96 hydatid cysts demonstrated a distinctive 1000 bp fragment in all samples from four animal hosts. RFLP analysis showed similar digestion patterns in all samples. AluI digestion yielded 800 bp and 200 bp fragments, HpaII digestion made 700 bp and 300 bp fragments and RsaI digestion entailed 655 and 345segments. Moreover, TaqI rendered no digestion pattern on rDNA-ITS1 region. Additionally, E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-3 complex) was the prevailing genotype in all livestock samples, according to PCR-RFLP and sequencing analyses.