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Aurelian Raţiu and Cătălin Cioacă

Abstract

The study of the military phenomenon can only be achieved by analyzing it in connection with other processes of social life and within the complex conditions determined by a set of political, social, economic, international, technological, etc factors. Thus, this research aims at identifying and presenting the main features of the military conflicts predictable in the future. Also, we made an analysis of the fundamental elements of the operational environment, from the perspective of the identified types of conflicts.

Open access

Gheorghe Calcan

Abstract

Constantin Apostol (1903-1995) was a prominent representative of the interwar Romanian horse riding [1]. He was born in Săgeata, Buzău County [2], attended primary school in his home town, high school in Buzău and military studies in Târgovişte and Sibiu. As far as his military career is concerned, C. Apostol advanced up to the rank of a lieutenant-colonel. He participated in various international competitions, winning many awards, including the first prize, in countries, such as: England, Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Germany, France, Italy, Poland. He took part in the military operations of World War II, both in the East and in the West, being decorated for his actions on both war fields. After the establishment of the communist regime, Constantin Apostol was continuosly humiliated, and finally imprisoned. In our work, the author aims to present, for the first time ever, precisely this final stage of his life.

Open access

Gheorghe Calcan

Abstract

Lieutenant Colonel Constantin Apostol (1903-1995) was born in a family of wealthy peasants from Săgeata commune, Buzău County. His studies were: primary school in his native town, high school in Buzău, followed by military studies, namely The Cavalry Officers School from Târgoviște, The Special Cavalry School and The Equestrian School in Sibiu. His military career evolved as follows: from a high school student (1924) to being a caporal, a sergeant and a plutonier (1925), a sub-lieutenant (1927), a lieutenant (1930), a captain (1938), a major (1943) and, at the end of his activity, a colonel lieutenant (1946). Constantin Apostol was considered one of the most prestigious representatives of the Romanian horse riding. He was an instructor and a teacher at the Equestrian School in Sibiu and at the Superior School of War. In the interwar period, Constantin Apostol represented Romania at numerous international equestrian contests, winning many awards, including the first prize in tournements such as those from Aachen (The Great Trophy), Brussels, Belgrade, Berlin, Duseldorf, London, Munich, Naples, Nice, Paris, Rome, Warsaw, Vienna, etc. For such results, his name was mentioned several times in the Day Order. Constantin Apostol remained active even after his retirement, when, while in reserve, he prepared the Romanian national team for the Olympics in Helsinki and Stockholm (1952, 1956) and was also the coach of Petrolul Ploiești Sports Club.

Open access

Maria-Lucia Rusu and Ramona-Elena Herman

Abstract

Social media has become an informational decision-making vector due to the rapid transfer and permanent consumption of messages by the population. In this virtual environment, information changes its qualitative and quantitative form, from real, manipulated to a fabricated form. As information grows, it travels more rapidly, responding to the needs and expectations of individuals, and at the same time there are the dangers of its distortion and intoxication, affecting the perception of the receptors. Fake news is a phenomenon created by social media, in which the communication scheme is vicious, it occurs due to the lack of information of the users. Fake news produces confusion and distraction, leading to fragmented public opinion. At international level, the act of combating this phenomenon was implemented by the authorities on a legislative basis, adopting anti-fake news laws with drastic sanctions, which differ according to the form of government in each state. The first country in the world to introduce an anti-fake news law is Malaysia. And the first European democratic state to initiate two bills against false information is France.

Open access

Laviniu Bojor

Abstract

The time of conventional conflicts and warfare between states or regular armies has come to an end. The recent theatres of operations have shown us that the Irregular Warfare, marked by the concealment of combatants among the civilian population, has captured the way of conducting military actions. The paper identifies the role of local communities in conflict zones, and their influence in the outcome of armed confrontations.

Open access

Szilveszter Szeleczki

Abstract

In our current network-based world, cooperation between different participants in all areas, for example political, defense, economic or cultural, has an increasing role. Because of this the importance of interoperability between participants is also increasing. The central presence of information also highlights the concept and influencing factors of interoperability. The participants can be individuals, organizations or other groups, where a comprehensive flow of information and the constant presence of the information space is essential for its effective and efficient activity. Interoperability issues are also a key component of the military transformation process of NATO, so basic information questions should be answered to achieve the target system. Nowadays, interoperability requirements and definitions are subject to periodic changes in order to facilitate high-tech joint exercises using advanced technology.

Open access

Oana-Antonia Ilie

Abstract

Effective intercultural communication has become a priority today because of the importance it has gained in the understanding of the cultural diversity of the world. Immigration, urbanization, international employment, study exchange programs and ease of foreign travel are facilitating daily contact between people of different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of developing the attitudes and the communication skills necessary for multicultural exchange, in everyday life and within organizations. Learning about other cultures and developing intercultural communication competences and skills can help facilitate the multicultural encounter and can lead to more openness and tolerance towards the significant other.

Open access

Oana-Antonia Ilie

Abstract

When people from different countries, cultures and backgrounds meet, they have to cope with the positive and the negative aspects of the intercultural exchange. Barriers such as anxiety, language, stereotypes, prejudice, ethnocentrism, and assumption of similarity instead of difference are the most significant ones to consider. This paper aims to discuss the main difficulties that individuals of various cultures and heritages may face during the intercultural communication process. In particular, this paper takes a closer look at the cultural differences between China and the USA, and at some of the current communication difficulties that the two countries face, caused by lack of mutual understanding, ethnocentrism, stereotypes, prejudice, language, differences of nonverbal indices, political and economic causes.

Open access

Fănică Cercel

Abstract

The initiation of criminal prosecution is always preceded by the notification of criminal investigation bodies (or the disclosure) about the commission of a crime, since it is not possible to start the criminal trial in the absence of such notification. Another (negative) condition is the nonexistence of any of the cases provided by art. 16 of the Criminal Procedure Code, otherwise they are closed prior to the commencement of criminal prosecution.The procedural act by which the prosecution is initiated, according to Article 305, paragraph 2, of the Criminal Procedure Code is the ordinance. The commencement of criminal prosecution is always ordered in respect of the offense, even if the person who committed the offense is indicated in the notice.

Open access

Constantin Grigoraş

Abstract

The international security environment is constantly changing. Ensuring the success of the fight against the new threats can be achieved by understanding the operational environment that is becoming increasingly more complex in the context of the profound changes in the political, social and economic environment of the past decade and of the advanced technologies that create new challenges for all forces with responsibilities in the field of national defense and security, regional and global. The trends in the current operational environment, based on the analysis of the conflicts of the last decades, lead to a new approach to the development of military capabilities, the process of planning, organizing and conducting military actions, the ways of achieving victory in the new conditions imposed by the realities of the battlefield.