This article discusses compounds in a corpus collected among native and multilingual children in schools in Aarhus, Denmark. The corpus consists of interviews with individual children and recordings of groups of children playing; the compounds were collected from the interviews only. Focus is on different semantic types of compounds.
A large body of the corpus consists of simple lexicalized compounds where the compound is the only relevant alternative if you want to express yourself idiomatically. Occasionally we found interesting unconventional compounding used to replace lexical gaps with the children, among the native speakers as well as among the multilingual children. In some cases, very special types of compounds came up, especially in the attempts of the children to cope with specific challenges in some of the tasks in the interviews.
The paper deals with the phenomenon of nomina attrubutiva, i.e. nouns denoting a bearer of a quality, in modern Norwegian. It is a corpus study of 55 compound nouns with verbal, nominal and adjectival stems. The goal of the study is to determine which nomina attributiva are the most frequent in written and spoken language and to analyze their usage patterns with regards to their reference and the types of syntactic structures they are parts of. The results show that the analyzed compounds are far from being a homogenous group and that they differ particularly in respect to reference.
In this article I give semantic and historical explanations of some selected lexical areas that may cause problems for non-native speakers of Danish. I describe some important developments in a historical perspective, showing how new words shift the semantics of old words.
I also deal with how many new words are continuously recorded and the vast majority of new words are occasional formations. They show the creativity in Danish language. I have selected two new words from each year since 1946 to honor the 70-year-old professor in Danish.
The contemporary teaching of foreign languages assumes the development of the ability to use a foreign language in different communication situations. Apart from language competence, also the cultural competence is developed as it is a necessary component of communication. A successful transfer of knowledge and language skills in the process of foreign language learning is determined by a textbook (in addition to other factors). The goal of this article is to analyze the content and assess three Danish textbooks, which were published in Germany in the years 2008-2010. The textbooks are examined in terms of knowledge about Danish life and institutions, the transfer of intercultural competence and the presence of stereotypes. The textbooks were studied based on the list of criteria and it resulted in stating that the textbooks fulfill the objective of providing the knowledge about the country to a great degree. The intercultural component and the issue of stereotypes are dealt with in a different manner.
The article presents an outline of issue of translator’s ‘false friends’ and internationalisms from linguistic point of view. This discourse has been supported by chosen examples of words from a few languages. The second part of the article has been focused on didactic issues; the author suggests that a positive transfer in teaching of vocabulary should be used, especially in the context of the called for multilingualism.
The article deals with the subject of incorporation shown as a special kind of composition and derivates formed from phrases (Zusammenbildungen). The author attempts to differentiate between these two types and also describes such phenomena as predicate-argument- structure and the principle of the meaningful word. In his opinion it is worth using such terms to give the language description a better overview.
Culture is present in texts created in a certain literary system and socio-cultural context on every level and becomes particularly visible in culture-specific items (CSIs). They anchor the texts into a certain culture and as such pose serious translation problems. At the same time culture is embedded in the system of transnational relations where there is always cultural asymmetry that exerts influence on the translation process. The position of the culture and the language in the international system tends to be reflected in translator’s choices. This paper addresses the issue of the cultural asymmetry and culturebound translation problems in the Dutch translations of modern Polish literature. For this purpose the author takes a close look at the translations of Popioł i diament [Ashes and Diamonds], Mała apokalipsa [A minor apocalypse] and Dukla [Dukla].
Two hypotheses on identity lay at the core of this paper. (1) Doeschka Meijsing presents identity as unstable and as a construct of one’s own in three novels. (2) Meijsing uses memory discourses and cultural phenomena to display how characters struggle when (re-)constructing their identities. Pip (Over de liefde, 2008), has to deal with the secret affair of her female lover who has got pregnant. She refuses to be the ‘left one’ everyone feels pity for. As a result, she has to create a new identity that doesn’t fit the expectations of others. In 100% Chemie (2002), an unnamed daughter of a German migrant and Dutch father grew up in the Netherlands. As she doesn’t identify with any nationality she seeks to stabilize her fragmented identity. Investigating the history of her German family she tries to create her own identity. Robert Martin, main character of De tweede man (2000), struggles with the legacy of his brother Alexander who has passed away. Robert has not only inherited his brother’s fortune but also his friends. They want Robert to replace Alexander. Robert has to create a new identity which fits their lifestyle. Meijsing’s characters feel as if they have ‘lost’ their identities, as far as they ‘owned’ ones. As a result, their stories stress views on identity: do they have fixed identities, which can be destroyed? Is identity a construction and if so, how can it be created? I discuss how cultural memory, especially counter-memory which questions memory discourses, impacts the construction of identity. Furthermore, I show how intersections of identity categories trouble Meijsing’s characters.
The sixteenth-century morality play Elckerlijc is one of the few texts mentioned in almost all Dutch canon lists. It is no surprise that this is one of the few medieval Dutch texts transferred into different languages and cultures. There are two Polish texts based on it, the first from 1921 by Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz (Kwidam), the second from 1933 by Stanisław Helsztyński (Każdy (Everyman): średniowieczny moralitet angielski). The text was though never directly translated into Polish from Dutch. The main issue is whether these translations have influenced the image of Dutch literature in Poland. It appears that secondary literature has seen the plays of Iwaszkiewicz and Helsztyński only as transfer of German or English literature and ideas and that it is rarely known that the original story originates from the Netherlands.
During the Second World War, both in the Dutch East Indies and in Curaçao, journals were published in which Dutch authors could publish their works unhampered by German censorship. In addition, literary works in Dutch were published in the Dutch East Indies, South Africa and New York. A man involved in all these initiatives was Jan Greshoff, an author who had played an important role in Dutch literature during the time between the two world wars. In this article, the role of Greshoff in relation to the literary journal De Stoep, which originated in Curaçao after the German occupation of Holland in 1940, will be explored. Although he never went to Curaçao and never met the journal’s founder, Luc. Tournier, in person, Greshoff played an important role in the history of De Stoep during the years of the war, and thus indirectly in the development of Dutch literature in Curaçao.