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Goodwill in the Process of Mergers and Acquisitions in Poland


The aim of this paper was to verify if the goodwill (positive or negative) disclosed after a merger or acquisition is sensitive to manipulating the financial result in the acquiring company. Manipulating the result referred to the extent of cost allocation in short-term prepayments. Later we examined if the operational result achieved by the acquiring company (profit or loss) has an impact upon the revealed goodwill. The verification of the research hypotheses was performed with the use of statistical tools (linear regression analysis, nonlinear regression function test, normality of residual distribution test). As a result of the research, no significant relation between allocating costs and the disclosed negative goodwill was found, only in the case of positive goodwill its value was related to the allocating in assets costs. Neither positive nor negative goodwill was related to the operating results of the acquiring companies in one year preceding the merger or acquisition.

Open access
The Impact of Accounting and Tax Law Concerning Borrowing Costs on the Assessment of the Financial Leverage Effect


The aim of this paper is to present the impact of accounting and tax law concerning borrowing costs on the assessment of financial leverage effect. Due to the fact that these legal regulations require, in some cases, the recognition of borrowing costs not in the profit and loss account but in the value of assets, previously used methods for the identification of financial leverage effect do not always allow to draw the correct conclusions. Therefore, the paper proposes the necessary modification.

Open access
Innovative Models of Supply Chain Management


Purpose: The paper scientifically analyzes sustainable development in the context of economic entities and their integration in supply chains that reflect the various business models between parties involved in value creation.

Methodology: The authors seek the relationship between three aspects of sustainability and limitation of the functional weaknesses of the market through the integration of supply chains that reflect various business models. The paper bases on a survey conducted to identify interests of the companies in integrating innovations for greater sustainability.

Findings: The integration of supply chain is one of the reasons for using or limiting the functional weaknesses of the market related to the three sustainability aspects pictured by the concept of sustainability as environmental, social, and economic resources. Different forms of integration may contribute to the maintenance and enhancement of these resources.

Limitations: To clarify the influence of the supply chain integration on sustainable development, scholars need to conduct further research. The main point of the future research should be the development of a measure for the extent of influence of the supply chain integration on sustainable development.

Originality: The connecting of the integration of supply chain and sustainability is a new direction of scientific research that has previous studies. Thus, the research outcomes will impact the scientific field and community in both the area of supply chain management and sustainability studies.

Open access
International Contexts of Social Media and e-WoM Communication in the Customer Decision-Making Process


Purpose: The main purpose of the paper is to identify the importance of social media in e-WoM (electronic word of mouth) in relation to the two stages of consumer behavior, pre-purchase and post-consumption, in groups of different gender and countries. The article answers three research questions. Whether the frequency of using the most popular social media influences the range of using them in e-WoM among individual users? Which stage of consumer behavior process is more dependent on social media, pre-purchase or post-consumption? Do any differences exist between men and women in the scope under consideration?

Methodology: The analysis bases on literature studies and empirical data collected among 1246 respondents from four countries: China, Poland, the United States of America, and Turkey.

Findings: General conclusions show differences between these countries in relation to the use of social media for e-WoM. Moreover, results confirmed the findings of literature analysis wherever consumers used social media at the stage of looking for information and advice about products (pre-purchase). Gender appeared as a significant differentiating factor that influences e-WoM behavior.

Research limitations: The design of the research (samples’ size and sampling method) could place some limits on the capacity of the study to generalize the results to other national contexts.

Research implications: The results offer information for marketers who use social media communication to build brands’ loyalty in the international marketplace and individuals who rely on experiences shared through social media.

Originality: The content of the paper is important, timely, original, and focusses on the subject infrequently studied in the literature. The information from the paper applies to numerous groups of stakeholders.

Open access
Managing Reverse Knowledge Flows in Routine Replication Programs: The Case of Global Manufacturing ERP Template Rollout


Purpose: Acknowledging the key role of knowledge transfer as the primarily mechanism, through which firms replicate organizational routines, this paper addresses the role of reverse knowledge flows in routine replication programs and attempts identifying a set of mechanisms that could facilitate these knowledge flows. Furthermore, the article aims to provide a proposal for a structured approach to reverse knowledge flow management that would combine in the same framework (1) the deployment of routines in new contexts and (2) the collection, transformation, and redeployment of local knowledge.

Methodology: The applied methodology follows the interpretative research approach. It draws from a longitudinal study of a seven-year-long replication program, during which an ERP template has been deployed in twenty-five manufacturing sites and five regional offices of a leading multinational FMCG company. The main research method was participant observation complemented with interviews, project documentation, and e-mail communication analysis.

Findings: The paper shows that, in the course of multiple replications, the replicated template becomes subject to several adjustments in order to fit new requirements, eliminate observed shortcomings, and adopt learnings from previous deployment sites. The article further demonstrates that keeping such template enhancement process effective requires deliberate management of reverse knowledge flows, which maturity should grow in parallel to the scope of the program and number of replications. This means that reverse knowledge flows must increasingly base on well-established processes with assigned resources, clear responsibilities, and socio-material mechanisms. This is a prerequisite for the subsequent deployments and retrofits of an enriched template to become the key vehicle for the diffusion of local learnings on a company-wide scale.

Originality: This paper contributes to the literature on organizational routines by addressing the role of reverse knowledge flows in routine replication processes, proposing a structured approach to reverse knowledge flow management in routine replication programs, and presenting a maturity model for a reverse knowledge flow management system.

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Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship: A Theoretical Approach


Purpose: The purpose of this article is to position self-employment within an entrepreneurship paradigm. The authors create a structured approach to the existing concepts and definitions of entrepreneurship and self-employment, as well as interrelations between them. The text proposes a framework to analyze these two phenomena by establishing their categorization.

Methodology: An in-depth critical review of selected literature of the classical and contemporary entrepreneurship theories and definitions in the context of self-employment.

Findings: The main results of the study show major discrepancies between existing definitions and approaches in entrepreneurship and self-employment theories and the official EU definitions.

Practical implications: The findings offer a starting point for quantitative, methodologically sound, comparative studies on entrepreneurship and self-employment and their role in the contemporary labor market. The proposed categorization structures current terminological chaos and standardizes the terms and tools used in labor market statistics.

Originality: The article comprises a set of notions related to the concept of both entrepreneurship and self-employment. The text positions self-employment within an entrepreneurship paradigm and offers new arguments in the discussion on their similarities and differences. The summary offers an original idea that confronts self-employment forms with selected entrepreneurship characteristics.

Open access
To Explore the Effectiveness of Digital and Experiential Marketing in Attracting Customer Participation in the Hong Kong Wine and Dine Festival


The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of digital and experiential marketing in attracting customer participation in the Hong Kong Wine and Dine Festival. This study explores the evolution of theories and models of digital and experiential marketing, and how they account for participation in a specific event. Findings show that variables related to media have moderate to strong relationship to customer satisfaction: owned media - HKTB Facebook, paid media - search engine, earned media - word-of-mouth, experiential marketing - escapist, experiential marketing - entertainment. Customer satisfaction also has a moderate relationship to customer loyalty. To boost the number of visitors, it is critical to better utilize the owned media – HKTB Facebook, paid media - search engine, and earned media – word-of-mouth to provide information and get positive feedback from visitors. The experiential marketing seems to be equally important and the marketer/organizer should consider providing escapist and entertainment experiences for visitors.

A major limitation is the cross-sectional nature of this study. Future research could adopt a longitudinal approach by exploring issues related to promotional tools and types of experience over say three consecutive years. Another limitation is the sample size and type. Numbers are moderate and the snowball sampling adopted is non-probabilistic, which means that findings are suggestive rather than generalizable to all similar events.

Open access
Types of Government Deficit in Respect of Fiscal Decision-Making


Fiscal policy includes the government decisions on the size of taxes that affect the size of the government deficit. There are different types of government deficit. The aim of the analyses is to examine the relation between the type of deficit and the optimal level of tax rate. In this article we verify the hypothesis that the type of deficit considered affects the tax rate. For the hypothesis verification, we use the feedback rules that are the solution of the quadratic-linear problem.

Open access
Working Capital Management and Corporate Performance: Evidence from Indonesia


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between working capital management and firm performance for firms listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange. Prior works have employed many indicators of the working capital. The results of previous studies, however, have been inconsistent. This study is an attempt to find out the best proxy of working capital in explaining firm’s performance.

Methodology: This study employs regression panels for five measures of working capital to model the data for fifty-four firm-year observations that meet the sampling criteria, covering the time 2010–2014. This study also uses adjusted R-squared as the criteria to select the strongest relationship between measures of working capital and firm performance.

Findings: The findings indicate that all proxies of working capital management met expected signs and statistical significance. Hence, working capital management significantly improves firms’ performance. The proxy of inventory turnovers is the best measure of working capital in explaining firm performance.

Originality: To the author’s knowledge, this is the first study examining the relationship between five measures of working capital management and firm performance in Indonesia or in any emerging markets; hence, this study contributes to the scarce literature on the management of working capital.

Open access