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The Theory of Optimal Balancing of Mechanisms

Abstract

This paper presents a general theory regarding the balancing of mechanisms. It starts with Stevenson’s theory [1], which proves that any mechanism can be dynamically perfectly balanced if there is a pair of counterweights that are eccentrically positioned in three reciprocating perpendicular axes, passing through the mass center of the body. The system of inertial forces are extended in Fourier series where only the first terms, the basic harmonics, are considered. The proposed goal is to stultify the effect of inertial forces and torques. This paper deals with a situation more appropriate to reality. In common cases there doesn’t exist the possibility of implementing counterweights in three perpendicular axes. In this situation only the minimization of inertial forces and torques remains as a possible solution. The method developed for this case is presented.

Open access
Wind Loading on Solar Panels

Abstract

A fully 3D numerical analysis of turbulent flow over a cluster of solar photovoltaic (PV) panels was performed in order to assess the total drag and lift forces, comparing the results with the values from the guidelines of the national standard. A Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) model was used in the numerical simulations, considering two acting directions of the wind along the length of the array (0 degree – front, and 180 degrees – reverse direction).

Open access
The application of new technologies in promoting a healthy lifestyle: selected examples

Abstract

Modern society is fascinated by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), physical laziness, isolation from nature, and a preference for staying indoors. Despite the general acceptance and understanding of the health benefits of recreation in the open air, a change is being seen in the recreational patterns of urban dwellers, as they spend less time outdoors. In order to counteract such behaviours, we can try to apply ICTs to enhance time spent outdoors. The performed study aimed to find uses of ICT solutions in designing public spaces in order to enhance and promote a healthy lifestyle. The selected examples show possible applications of ICT in promoting active recreation, e.g. mobile applications for sport activities, urban games in line with the idea of the Playable City, and urban furniture and outdoor hotspots enabling access to the Internet. The research findings proved that digitisation is not only a threat to a healthy lifestyle, but that it can also create opportunities to improve the quality of life.

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Construction coefficient in the settlements of Gllogoc Municipality (Republic of Kosova)

Abstract

This paper evaluates the built area within “cadastral zones” (subdivisions of municipalities) in order to identify the expansion tendencies of settlements, with the aim of contributing to preventing future uncontrolled developments. Demographic growth always needs more construction so it is important to provide a spatial analysis of land use. The paper is focused on the expansion dynamics of built areas within cadastral zones due to rapid social and economic changes. The lack of researches for the Drenica region has affected land use, which has been unplanned and not-to-standard, and has not preserved agricultural land. In the last two decades – since 1999 – there has been considerable growth in the construction sector across all of Kosovo. Although, according to the spatial plan, property owners have the right to develop and use their own property in their own best interests, these regulations do not give them the right to work outside the legal framework of the local plan itself. Land use should be in full compliance with spatial plans, both national and local. This study will contribute to the sustainable urbanisation of settlements and preservation of agricultural land. The results of the study will also help to make important decisions for built areas, in also providing necessary recommendations for steps to be taken to have a land use based on common interests.

Open access
Cultural Clusters as a Local Economic Development Strategy in Rural Small-Town Areas: Sarah Baartman District in South Africa

Abstract

Theory suggests that cultural and creative industries (CCIs) cluster in cities where levels of socio-economic development are higher and where they can take advantage of the city’s hard and soft infrastructure. However, some South African rural areas and small towns have identified CCIs as potential economic drivers. This paper investigates the relationship between the presence of CCIs in non-metropolitan spaces and levels of socio-economic development using a municipal level socio-economic status index and GIS mapping. The results show a positive relationship between larger numbers of CCIs and higher levels of development. It is suggested that a threshold level of development must be met before CCIs will cluster in an area and become a viable option for promoting local economic development.

Open access
Factors affecting household access to water supply in residential areas in parts of Lagos metropolis, Nigeria

Abstract

Access to water is vital for sustainable human socio-economic development. The study examined factors affecting households’ access to water supply in three residential areas in parts of Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. A random sampling technique was employed to administer questionnaires to 200 households. The study area was delineated into residential types using the grid method. The result shows the dominance of improved water sources in the high/medium-income residential areas. Households in the medium-income area recorded the highest access in terms of distance to, and safety of water supply. The factor analysis explains 77.41% of the variance with three components, namely: water access, demographic and economic attributes. The results of the analysis of variance reveal three significant variables, namely: main water source, income and cost, which is significant at p<0.01. The regression equation model obtained is given as Y = 2.059 + 0.307MWS + 0.286INM + 0.164CST. The study concluded that main water source, income and cost are the factors affecting access to water supply in the study area. The study recommends investment in water infrastructure, giving a higher priority to low-income residential areas for improved healthy living and sustainable socio-economic development.

Open access
Municipal waste recycling in big cities in Poland in the context of ecologisation

Abstract

The goal of the paper is to evaluate and analyse changes in selective municipal collection, recycling level, and recovery, of waste. The article indicates the Polish legislation currently in force to systematise the organisation of waste management systems. It presents the participation of selective waste collection in the total municipal waste at the voivodeship scale, as well as changes in the number of individually segregated fractions (i.e. categories of waste segregation) of selectively collected waste in Poland. Moreover, the levels of waste recycling and recovery were analysed for the country’s ten largest cities, while also showing that the cities implement accepted goals of municipal waste recovery. On the example of Warsaw, the structure of collected waste was discussed and attention was paid to the problem of quality of collected waste, which results in it being sent to sorting facilities.

Open access
Settlement Type and Educational Effectiveness of Polish Schools on the Example of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivoideship

Abstract

The article presents and analyses data on the educational potential of schools in relation to settlement type in Poland. On the example of two types of schools – successful and requiring help – their distribution was shown in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship. For this purpose, data from the Educational Value Added (EVA) index for voivodeship schools were interpreted. On this basis, it was determined what type of school the branches represent, and then classification and analysis was made for the village/city and the number of inhabitants. The results show that the educational potential of rural schools is lower than that of schools in cities. The results were interpreted on the basis of theories of cultural reproduction, bearing in mind the importance of settlement type for the construction of cultural capital.

Open access
Spatial analysis and urban land use planning emphasising hospital site selection: a case study of Isfahan city

Abstract

Providing appropriate and equal healthcare to the various classes of society is among the major issues in social welfare. The spatial distribution and locating of health service centres are significant in addressing the healthcare needs of citizens. This issue needs to be evaluated using quantitative and qualitative approaches throughout those cities with high populations and activity density levels. By taking Isfahan metropolitan area as the case study area, in this study, a combination of Network Analyst tool within Geographic Information System (GIS) and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model was used to evaluate the catchment areas of the 26 existing hospitals within the study area. Thus, with effective data collection in the form of layers of information such as transportation network, population density, land use, etc. using (GIS), the authors categorised urban land in seven categories from poor to very good for the construction of hospitals. The result of analysis indicated that existing hospitals covered approximately 24% of active urban areas within a standard access time. The result can be used for policy making and healthcare planning.

Open access
The spatial pattern of voter choice homogeneity in the Nigerian presidential elections of the fourth republic

Abstract

The return of democratic rule in 1999 after many years of military intervention has left some electoral geographic imprints on Nigeria: voting pattern has varied over this period. This paper analyses the pattern of voter choice homogeneity (VCH) and tests the effect of religion on VCH in the presidential elections of the fourth Nigerian republic from 1999 to 2015. The study found that some economic indicators have a positive and significant effect on VCH from the 2003 election but were all insignificant and with a negative impact in the 2015 election. The influence of religion on VCH was negative in the 1999 election but remained positive in subsequent elections and had an increasingly upward trajectory signifying the snowballing importance of faith in citizens’ political choices at the presidential polls. The analysis shows that the pattern of VCH in 1999 was random, but clustered from 2003 to 2015, although the 2011 geographical clustering of VCH was dissected and the 2015 pattern was regionalised. Thus, the article argues that voting patterns structured Nigeria’s political landscape from a random to clustered but dissected electoral landscapes to a clustered but regionalised mi-lieu of a nation of two voting worlds. The pattern of a nation of two voting blocs was witnessed in the 2015 election, in which the VCH sharply depicts the religious cleavage of the country and to some degree also depicts ethnic fault-lines.

Open access