The paper examines the phenomenon of the feminine gender, which in Bokmål is optional. The choice between the masculine and feminine forms is nevertheless not without meaning. It has been proved that if some nouns appear in feminine form earlier in a text, it implies the use of feminine gender on other nouns (Dyvik, 2012). Hence, the appearance of feminine marking on different words is mutually related, and may be shown to be consistent or not. The paper analyses texts written by Polish students of Norwegian on three different levels of language command (A2, B2/C1 and C2+) and investigates their use of feminine marking. The results show that the feminine gender is most often used by beginner learners, which confirms the initial hypothesis. Contrary to expectations, the most advanced students show inconsistency in their choice of feminine marking at least as often as beginner learners. The general conclusion is that the majority of Norwegian learners are not fully aware of the implications which come with the use of the feminine gender.
The article presents an exemplary corpus-based analysis of selected Norwegian idioms in order to gain insight into their theory and actual use. The analysis comprises nine frequent idioms with the component 'heart'. First, each idiom is analyzed using the Leksikografisk bokmålskorpus and Oslo-korpuset av taggende norske tekster in terms of: frequency, possible variants and modifications. Next, the results are compared with the lexicographic description from Norwegian dictionary Bokmålsordboka. The main purpose of this chapter is thereby to show the potential of the corpus-based approach in the studies of idiomatic expressions.
KULTURREFERENSER I ÄLDRE OCH NYARE ÖVERSÄTTNINGAR AV MAJ SJÖWALLS OCH PER WAHLÖÖS KRIMINALROMANER TILL POLSKA
The present paper deals with culture-specific items as a translational problem. It is based on two Polish translations of four Swedish books from the famous detective series by Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö.
The aim of the study is to analyze some of the practices employed by two Polish translators against the translation methods proposed by Newmark (1988), Svane (2002) and Ingo (2009). For this purpose a number of highly specific cultural items have been collected and the methods applied by translators have been identified.
The analysis has shown a big difference between translators in dealing with culture-specific items. The first translator, Maria Olszańska, adopts such translation methods as calque translation, hyperonym, functional equivalent, paraphrase and omission. The other translator, Halina Thylwe, prefers transference and calque translation combined with additional explanations, either in the main part of the text or in footnotes. The methods employed by both translators are a result of choosing between global translation strategies domestication and foreignization (Venuti 1995). Domestication, adopted in the older translations, minimizes the strangeness of the Swedish text to the Polish readers, whereas foreignization in the newer translations retains the foreignness of the original.
The article is an attempt at analyzing Danish nomina instrumenti among compounds and finding patterns of equivalence in Polish. The analysis of the collected corpus has shown that the Polish equivalents of the Danish compounds are not compounds but, with the exception of a minor group of derivates, they have the form of phrases. The analysis has shown patterns of regular Polish structures corresponding to the Danish compounds.
Compounding seems to be the most productive word formation process in Swedish on the basis of “new words’ lists” (Swedish: nyordslistor) registered by the Language Council of Sweden (Svenska Språkrådet). The subject of the research was the productiveness of compounds and their comprehensibility for the native speakers. The material for the corpus analysis showing the productivity of compounds consisted of 353 compound words from the lists from years 2000 – 2012. With help of a survey where pupils from a secondary school in Tingsryd in Småland were asked to define 17 compounds from “new words’ list” 2008 a conclusion could be drawn that compound words are short-lived, ephemeral constructions. The analysis has shown the big pace of changes that the lexicon undergoes and the linguistic creativity of language users as well as their strong need to create new terms. The results can evoke questions about the effectiveness of communication in relation to the features of new words.
The article is based on my unpublished master’s thesis.
The article presents and compares the general situation of public libraries and readership in Finland and Poland at the beginning of the 21st century, based on selected statistical data on the topic. In order to correctly understand the library policy of Finland - a country in which it is impossible to implement cultural policy without taking into account the geographical and natural conditions of individual regions - the most important data on the country are presented and compared with data on Poland.
Statistical schedules, online reports on the activity of public libraries, libraries’ homepages, legislative acts and professional library science magazines, among others, served as source materials for the conducted analysis. The comparative method, documentation analysis method and statistical method were used to achieve the assumed objectives.
Considering the limitations on the article size, a decision was made to select a few specific aspects of the topic for analysis - the most important ones in the author’s opinion. Among others, these included information on public libraries made available in both countries, contemporary government policies implemented towards the institutions that the author is interested in, conducting qualitative and quantitative research, generating reports on the research, as well as the governments’ compliance with international and national standards of the quality of library collections, personnel and services.
This paper looks into the issue of Swedish-Polish translationese as a manifestation of the Swedish centre impact on languages in the world via translation. The term “translationese” is used to describe a specific language created in translated texts, among other things in Swedish-to-Polish translation. Such a language may be postulated to influence contemporary Polish in some domains due to abundant translations of Swedish literature in Poland in recent years. What features can be then ascribed to the Swedish-Polish translationese, not only from a lexical but from a grammatical point of view as well? The paper addresses this question thorough an analysis of a Swedish literary text and its 33 Polish non-professional translations, which are assumed to maximize the tension between Swedish and Polish in translation underlying the development of translationese. However, the intention is not to characterize such a language as a whole, but to test some hypotheses in its delimitation. The propounded hypothesis is that the occurrence of a postulated feature in the majority of the collected translations may be seen as an indicator of this feature’s existence in the Swedish- Polish translationese as such. The following features are identified: frequent use of short sentences, possessive pronouns in an NP, underspecified expressions and repetitions of lexical items, as well as desolation of fixed phrases. The presented research may be an impute to a broader corpus-based contrastive study.