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The History of Pentathlon Competitions

Abstract

The Pentathlon is a combined athletic discipline of the ancient Olympic Games. A detailed exploration of the ancient Olympic competitions in general and of the pentathlon, in particular, allow us to discover1200 years of sport history. The spectacle of the pentathlon contest, the method of determining a winner, the order of the five disciplines is simply fascinating. The modern Olympic Games redefined the pentathlon among the Olympic disciplines. Under the name of the modern pentathlon, it gradually regained its fame won in antiquity. The military pentathlon is a variant of the modern pentathlon deployed within the military organization and is considered the king of military sports. The evolution of the modern battlefield, strongly influenced by the modern combat technique, will surely change the pentathlon contest register. Even if respect for the Olympic spirit is desired, the pentathlon must take into account the evolution of the contemporary society to keep its attractiveness.

Open access
Hypertext Organization as a Model of Organization Improving the Flow of Knowledge

Abstract

The article refers to a non-classic model of an organization, which is a hypertext organization. The hypertext organization combines a highly hierarchical organizational structure with the flexibility of management solutions supporting the conversion of various types of knowledge. It is considered to be a one of the most adequate models for managing the organization of the 21st century. Thereby, it contains in its assumptions solutions corresponding to challenges of the knowledge age and management of knowledge workers. The hypertext organization is able to successfully meet difficult requirements of the modern market and needs of an evolving society of different generations. It is important to show that the hypertext organization, being able to switch between “contexts” of knowledge creation, enables an efficient response to changing internal and external knowledge requirements.

The article is a theoretical discourse, the aim of which is to outline a concise characterization of a new solution in the subject of organizational structures, present the essence of hypertext solutions and show chances and capabilities of knowledge management in such organizations, that finally allow a transformation of institutions in intelligent organizations. Special attention will be paid to strongly hierarchical organizations such as uniformed services, especially the armed forces.

Open access
The Impact of Corruption on the Business in Bulgaria and Romania

Abstract

Nowadays, the topic of corruption is extremely relevant, not only in terms of clarifying its nature and appearance, but also in terms of its impact on business development. Corruption as a phenomenon goes through constant changes from the past to the present. Its growing significance from a resource redistribution tool to a regulator of social mechanisms, plays the role of a risk factor for the economic development of each country. In this context, the role of corruption is crucial for the business. Its importance in the economic and business climate, on one hand limits the input of foreign capital investment and on other hand slows the development of the companies, leading to an incorrect redistribution of their assets. As a result, there are significant losses for the business, as well as there is a disturbance of the economic cycle of the country. At the same time, business is an area predisposed to corruption. There are numerous possibilities for committing crimes and unethical behavior in this area. It is therefore necessary to analyze the impact of corruption on business development. In this regard, the aim of this report is to make a comparative analysis of the impact of corruption on the business in Bulgaria and Romania.

Open access
The Impact of Globalization on the Security Environment

Abstract

Globalization is a particularly complex phenomenon that marked the twentieth century and the beginning of the 21st century, bringing about transformations at the level of the entire human society. This phenomenon produces profound, and sometimes irreversible, changes in all areas and imposes an alert rhythm for the existence of all mankind, which must keep pace with globalization in order to maintain its chances of development in an increasingly competitive world. In the last decades, we witness the manifestation of the effects of globalization in the field of individual and collective security, with great implications on the relations between different actors of the security environment. Globalization creates new opportunities, but at the same time it gives rise to new vulnerabilities and allows the emergence of new threats that, once materialized, can have a major impact at a regional or even global level.

Open access
The Imperative Need to Create a Rapid and Efficient Connection between Transylvania and Bukovina During the First World War – The Construction of the Prundu Bârgăului - Vatra Dornei Railway Line

Abstract

In the context of the World War I outbreak and given the lack of a direct railway line between Transylvania and Bukovina, the Austro-Hungarian army is forced to find a quick and operative solution to the supply of weapons, food, but also to restore the supply to the Austro-Hungarian empire with manganese ore, dolomite, lumber, cereals, animals and other goods provided by Bukovina. Therefore, they considered building a fast link between Transylvania and Bukovina, along a spectacular route, namely, the Prundu Bârgăului-Vatra Dornei railway line. In the successful realization of this great project an ingenious, even revolutionary solution was found for those days: the construction of a railway line with normal gauge, adapted to trains and the petrol-electric traction, according to a model that was used and successfully put into practice since 1912 in Austrian Tirol. The works were completed in a very short time, even though there were very harsh working conditions and the route was extremely difficult. Both the Austro-Hungarian army and civilians from neighbouring villages and prisoners of war contributed to this success.

Open access
Improving the Quality and Efficiency of Higher Education Systems Based on the Knowledge-Management Approach

Abstract

The complexity of phenomena in modern society requires rich knowledge and practical abilities. Also, the speed at which information circulates in immense volume inhibits the ability of the interpreter to interpret it in a timely manner. Contemporary society is characterized by dynamism, by continuous renewal. It can only be known by personal, variable, and largely subjective, symbolic interpretations. The transition from knowledge as an ensemble of knowledge, information, data, to knowledge as a set of competencies determines a shift of emphasis in education, from ex-cathedra exposure to learning through experience/practice, transmission and memorization information (information), skills training, and skills. There is a need for the formation of individuals capable of analyzing concrete, new situations, and responding appropriately using logical thinking, problem solving, critical thinking, and divergent thinking skills.

Open access
Inductive Approach in Higher Education

Abstract

Both during university studies and at the beginning of their careers in different jobs, it has often been found that students and young employees face difficulties when they need to use their theoretical knowledge to solve practical professional problems. A possible cause of this phenomenon is the fact that the academic disciplines are usually taught in a deductive manner. The courses are conducted with focus on the presentation and explanation of new concepts and theories, and finally give examples or resolve some practical applications. This paper presents several ways to teach university subjects to develop students’ abilities to effectively link the theories to practice. It is about the teaching in an inductive manner, which starts from the evocation of real professional situations in the professional environment and gives then theoretical support and practical suggestions to approach and solve problems

Open access
The Influence of the Operational Environment on the Process of Planning Military Actions

Abstract

The international security environment is constantly changing. Ensuring the success of the fight against the new threats can be achieved by understanding the operational environment that is becoming increasingly more complex in the context of the profound changes in the political, social and economic environment of the past decade and of the advanced technologies that create new challenges for all forces with responsibilities in the field of national defense and security, regional and global. The trends in the current operational environment, based on the analysis of the conflicts of the last decades, lead to a new approach to the development of military capabilities, the process of planning, organizing and conducting military actions, the ways of achieving victory in the new conditions imposed by the realities of the battlefield.

Open access
Initiation/Commencement of Criminal Prosecution in the New Criminal Procedure Code

Abstract

The initiation of criminal prosecution is always preceded by the notification of criminal investigation bodies (or the disclosure) about the commission of a crime, since it is not possible to start the criminal trial in the absence of such notification. Another (negative) condition is the nonexistence of any of the cases provided by art. 16 of the Criminal Procedure Code, otherwise they are closed prior to the commencement of criminal prosecution.The procedural act by which the prosecution is initiated, according to Article 305, paragraph 2, of the Criminal Procedure Code is the ordinance. The commencement of criminal prosecution is always ordered in respect of the offense, even if the person who committed the offense is indicated in the notice.

Open access
Intercultural Communication Barriers. China and the USA, The Difficulties of a Dialogue

Abstract

When people from different countries, cultures and backgrounds meet, they have to cope with the positive and the negative aspects of the intercultural exchange. Barriers such as anxiety, language, stereotypes, prejudice, ethnocentrism, and assumption of similarity instead of difference are the most significant ones to consider. This paper aims to discuss the main difficulties that individuals of various cultures and heritages may face during the intercultural communication process. In particular, this paper takes a closer look at the cultural differences between China and the USA, and at some of the current communication difficulties that the two countries face, caused by lack of mutual understanding, ethnocentrism, stereotypes, prejudice, language, differences of nonverbal indices, political and economic causes.

Open access