Language is an instrument for communication and it has the obligation to serve people improving it. But in fact there are moments when language and its rules, decided by a group of people, goes against this purpose, creating so a disorientation between the users and misapprehension of the messages transmitted. In the Orthography of Albanian Language printed in 1973 (p.23) is written “The foreign names has to be written according to the tradition of their use in Albanian taking in consideration the pronunciation in their relative language.” Last 20 years in publications, periodic and visual medias in Albania we can note that the Albanian language is in crossroad between: a rule imposed in a situation of complete isolation and the actual situation of multiple contacts that makes the rule a barrier. Nowadays the same names are written in different forms losing so the correlation with the original and causing a enormous problem not only linguistic but cultural and interpersonal, too. For example referring to high school textbook of literature we will find the names of the American authors as pronounced, in the following forms: Teodor Ruthk, Robert Louell, Xhon Berrimen, Robert Krili, Allen Ginsbergu, Majkell Meklur, Xhek Spicer, Diane Uakoski etc. If an Albanian student would like to prepare a homework and he goes to search in internet information or to find bibliography about these authors, will be impossible to have results, because these names don’t exist in that form. According to the EU and UN norms, the names must be written in respect of the original form. Therefore the Albanian language should reflect social, political and cultural changes of the society, an open society needs an flexible and opened language because as Hudson said “Linguistics ignores the society for its harm”.
Osenweugwor Ngozi Aihie and Martins Noyosase Igbineweka
This study investigated the differential efficacy of Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT), Systematic Desensitization (SD) and Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT) in reducing the test anxiety status of undergraduates in a Nigerian University. To guide the study two research questions were raised and two corresponding hypotheses formulated. The study, a pre-test, post-test non-equivalent control group quasi experiment adopted a 3x2x2 factorial design. A sample of one hundred and twentythree undergraduate students in a Nigerian University participated in the study. A twenty-item Test Anxiety Inventory adapted from Spielberger (1980) was revalidated and administered to the sample to collect data for the study. The internal consistency of the instrument had a Crombach’s alpha value of 0.82. Data collected were analysed using Analysis of Variance statistics and the hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance. The results revealed statistically significant decreases in test anxiety of participants in two of the treatment groups – Systematic Desensitization and Solution Focused Brief Therapy. The effectiveness of the two treatments on test anxiety was found to be independent of gender of the participants. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy had no statistically significant effect on the test anxiety of the participants. It was concluded that Systematic Desensitization and Solution Focused Brief Therapy are effective methods of reducing test anxiety in learners. Based on the results, recommendations were made.
Inclusive education guarantees the right of education for every child despite their physical and/or mental disabilities. In other words inclusion aims at placement of special education students in general classrooms giving learners equal possibilities of education within the differences in their abilities to learn. Unfortunately, the implementation of inclusive education in Albania is still facing lots of difficulties. Traditionally, Albanian children with disabilities are segregated into separate learning environments. However, during the last two decades attempts are made to integrate them in the mainstream education. Although we are far from a successful implementation of inclusive education we consider it as very important since it maximizes the learning experiences of both mainstream and disabled learners. In this paper, the factors related to the inclusion of learners with disabilities in the mainstream education are discussed. Drafting of an inclusive curriculum which is the same for all schools and all learners, whether they are in mainstream or special schools is considered as crucial. The paper raises the questions of changing the attitude of educators in regard to learners with disabilities, increasing their professional knowledge about the learning differences as well as highlighting the tools of how to address each of them so that equal possibility to gain knowledge within the limits of capability are given to all learners. The significance and relevant effects of these factors will be the basis of the conclusion of this paper.
This paper examines Mood Patterns in some passages from Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus and Achebe’s Anthills of the Savannah. More specifically, two extracts from the above mentioned prose fiction have been purposefully selected, described and analyzed from the Systemic Functional Linguistics perspective in order to reveal how the lexicogrammatical features of the interpersonal meaning of the studied extracts underpin the perception of the two authors throughout their novels. The article goes further and highlights the similarities and differences in the interpersonal functions of the extracts under scrutiny in terms of their contents and how the English language has been used therein to construe the above pinpointed authors’ world views of the issues dealt with in their writings. The findings of the study have, among others, revealed that the gap between Achebe’s and Adichie’s writings is not full size and that the former has actually paved the way to the latter.
Externalizing disorders (ED) refer to behaviours of a child/adolescent that negatively affect persons external to them. So far, no large-scale study on ED in adolescents attending secondary schools has been carried out in Albania. The current study explored gender and age differences in relation to externalizing disorders (ED) in a large sample of adolescents in 8 secondary schools situated in Tirana, the capital of Albania. The study adopted a mixed-methods approach. A survey consisting of two questionnaires SDQ-T and WOST were completed by 42 teachers (randomly selected) on 614 pupils randomly selected in their K7-9 classes. The teachers were divided in 4 groups which participated in one focus group meeting. Gender-related differences confirmed previous studies that indicate a higher prevalence of ED in the male population. Evidence on age-related differences was mixed, with quantitative data indicating higher levels of ED in the 14 and 15-year olds in comparison with the 13-year olds, and qualitative data suggesting the opposite trend, that is, higher levels in 13-year olds attending year 7 adjusting to transition in secondary schools, gradually decreasing in years 8 & 9. Recommendations based on the findings of the study are given regarding interventions that should target coping with school transitions in secondary school, promoting positive social skills and competencies, emotion regulation techniques and awareness of risks related to unsupervised use of social apps/media in schools.
Valeria Biasi, Luca Mallia, Paolo Russo, Francesca Menozzi, Rita Cerutti and Cristiano Violani
The literature shows that homesickness can have a negative impact on different areas of psychological functioning such as cognitive, emotional, behavioral, physical and social ones. The study, conducted on a sample of first-year university students, aimed to test a model hypothesizing that two distinct dimensions of homesickness, attachment to home and disliking university, could have both direct and indirect effects on their psychological distress and sleep difficulties. Two hundred and seventy-seven first-year students (70.4% Female) living away from home (mean age= 21.3, SD= 2.7) were included in the study and filled out questionnaires assessing homesickness, psychological distress and sleep difficulties. Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis confirmed that the two homesickness dimensions worked differently since only the one relating to new place adjustment difficulties (i.e. disliking the university) resulted having both direct and indirect effects on students’ sleep difficulties. Although female students reported higher levels of psychological distress compared to males, the multi-group SEM analysis showed that the pattern of multivariate relationships linking the two dimensions of homesickness, psychological distress and sleep difficulties, was invariant across gender. The results of the present study suggest that university counselling and guidance services should quickly screen students experiencing homesickness and offer effective counselling programs focusing on enhancing their capacities to deal with the new academic environment.
This study aimed to explore the teaching-learning congruence between mid-career teachers and millennial learners which remains a global challenge. After 15-30 years of teaching, they face issues on self-absorption with great desire to develop themselves instead of mentoring others. In the Philippines, they resort to printed learning materials, while the millennials are highly addicted to technology and ecopies. Self-reflected learning is dominant in mid-career teachers, while collaborative learning works well with millennial learners. The said divide in their teaching and learning strategies results to constant struggles among mid-career teachers. In Australia and some countries, there is scanty literature on midcareer teachers. This phenomenological case study in a Philippine teaching university unraveled their day-to-day struggles as they coped and bridged the teaching-learning divide. Results can usher in a paradigm shift in mid-career teachers teaching as well as produce policy enablers with capacity building to manage millennials as top priority in the Philippines, in Asia and abroad.
Life insurance is a type of insurance that protects individuals or their relatives who are left behind after death or permanent injury. Although it is quite different from the diversity in the world, life insurance in Turkey, which also allows accumulation with providing death benefit, contribute to the tendency of people to save money. One of the reasons for slower development in life insurances in Turkey compared to the countries in the world stems from the education in the field of insurance. Indicators such as insufficient number of institutes and experts in the field and low ratio of insurance literacy are the outcomes of this inadequate education system. Hence, lack of education is directly connected with the level of students’ knowledge. The aim of this study, in which a cross-tabulated survey is used, is to measure the undergraduates’ knowledge level of basics of life insurance at the department of Insurance and Risk Management in Dumlupinar University. Results show that students who are taking education at the Dumlupinar University at the department of Insurance and Risk Management, have very low knowledge about basic life insurance. This study is important in determining the knowledge level of the students who will be in the insurance sector in the future and who will have an individual relationship with the customers.
The study ascertained the influence of spousal communication about family planning on contraceptive use among married couples in the rural areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained from one hundred and fifty married couples using multi-stage sampling procedure. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. Results indicate that 71.3% of the respondents were females with an average age of 38 years while 28.7% of them were males with an average age of 49 years; fourteen years was the respondents’ average years of marriage. Findings also show that barrier methods, hormonal contraceptives and injectables were the contraceptive methods highly used by the respondents; and majority of the married couples had a favourable spousal communication about family planning disposition. Multiple regression analysis result shows that contraceptive use by the respondents was significantly influenced by their spousal communication about family planning. It is recommended, among others, that intervention programmes of Governmental and Non-Governmental agencies in Akwa Ibom State emphasize the importance of spousal communication about family planning in their programmes and encourage same among targeted beneficiaries of such programmes.
Kerasioti Kassiani, Pliakou Evanthia, Vlachou Rafailia-Iro, Aspridis M. George, Blanas Nikolaos and Tselios Dimitrios
Internet addiction is the most modern form of addiction and belongs to behavioral addictions. The term appeared in 1996 and spread very quickly all over the world, especially among teenagers and young people. Many users escape the formal use of the Internet and easily lose control of the situation. The article aims to deal with the university students’ addiction to Internet and social media. It is a fact that most young people spend valuable time on the Internet without knowing the negative impact this engagement may have. For this purpose, a questionnaire based on the Internet Addiction Test was formulated, in order to answer a number of questions about Internet addiction, the consequences and causes of this phenomenon, the ways of dealing with the problem, the indications (information) and statistical data available for Greece, etc. The results obtained will be very useful and can be used by researchers to shape the profile of new and future uses, regarding the impact of internet use on professional life and development of young people, but also in dealing with social phenomena and adaptation problems.