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Determination of Free Doxycycline Concentrations in the Plasma and Milk of Sheep and in the Plasma of Rabbits by Using the HPLC Method

Abstract

A fast and sensitive HPLC method was validated in order to analyze doxycycline in plasma and milk of sheep and in plasma of rabbits. The samples were processed with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). After the centrifugation step, a supernatant containing extracted doxycycline and internal standard oxytetracycline was injected into the HPLC system with PDA detection. The method showed linearity in the range of 0.125 - 2.5 μg/mL for ovine plasma, 0.125 – 5.0 μg/mL for ovine milk, and 0.125 – 1 μg/mL for rabbit plasma. The inter-assay precision varied between 5.69 – 13.55 %. Values for intraassay precision were between 0.62 – 8.67 %. Accuracy was higher than 90% in all of the tested concentrations in the three types of biological matrices. The mean extraction recovery was higher than 90 % for all matrices. In order to handle only with free drug concentrations, microfiltration of standard solutions with low (0.25mg/mL), medium (0.5mg/mL) and high (1.0mg/mL) concentration was performed. A percentage for correction of the quantified doxycycline was calculated. The most significant adjustments should be made at the low concentrations. The correction for rabbit plasma is 24.63±5.03%, for ovine plasma is 20.10±8.01% and for milk –16.68±0.04 %. This method can be used for routine determination of doxycycline concentrations for pharmacokinetic studies and further dosage adjustment.

Open access
The Effect of Diet Supplemented with Dandelion’s (Taraxacum officinale) Extract on the Productive and Blood Parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), Cultivated in the Recirculation System

Abstract

The aim of the current study was to test the effect of a diet supplemented with dandelion’s (Taraxacum officinale) extract on the productive traits and blood parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) cultivated in an recirculation aquaculture system. The carps were cultivated at a stocking density of 7.2 kg/m3 in recirculation aquaculture system. The fish were split into the following two experimental groups: DF (the fish were fed with feed supplemented with dandelion’s extract) and CF (the fish were fed with feed without supplementation). Common carp fed with a diet added with dandelion’s extract at a quantity of 0.8% from daily feed ratio, did not affect the hydrochemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductivity). The carps fed with feed supplemented with dandelion’s extract did not show better productive traits compared with these found for carp from the control variant. The carp from experimental groups had a higher survival rate, final weight, average individual weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR), respectively with 13.2%, 3.94%, 31.5% and 31.3%, compared with the average values of these parameters measured in individuals fed with the control feed, but the differences were not statistically significant (P≥0.05). Supplementation of feed with dandelion’s extract significantly decreased the plasma cholesterol (4.76%) and triglyceride (61.2%) content, promoting hypolipidemic status in fish (P≤0.05).

Open access
Absence of mutations in the human interferon alpha-2b gene in workers chronically exposed to ionising radiation

Abstract

Individuals chronically exposed to low-level ionising radiation (IR) run the risk of harmful and long-term adverse health effects, including gene mutations and cancer development. The search for reliable biomarkers of IR exposure in human population is still of great interest, as they may have a great implementation potential for the surveillance of occupationally exposed individuals. In this context, and considering previous literature, this study aimed to identify mutations in the human interferon alpha-2b (hIFNα-2b) as a potential biomarker of occupational chronic low-dose IR exposure linking low-IR exposure to the effects on haematopoiesis and reduced immunity. The analysis was performed in the genomic DNA of 51 uranium miners and 38 controls from Kazakhstan, and in 21 medical radiology workers and 21 controls from Italy. hIFNα-2b gene mutations were analysed with the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or Sanger sequencing. However, none of the investigated workers had the hIFNα-2b mutation. This finding highlights the need for further research to identify biomarkers for early detection of health effects associated with chronic low-dose IR exposure.

Open access
The association between the OPRM1 A118G polymorphism and addiction in a Turkish population

Abstract

Susceptibility to addiction has a complex genetic basis that includes genes associated with the action and metabolism of drugs of abuse. One important gene in that respect is OPRM1, which codes for the μ-opioid receptor and has an important role in mediating the rewarding effects of addiction substances. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of the OPRM1 A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) in Turkish population and to investigate its association with opioid and other substance addiction. In addition, we examined the association of rs1799971 in addicted patients who were also diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. The study included 103 patients addicted to opioids, cocaine, ecstasy, alcohol, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), cannabis, and sedative/hypnotic substances and 83 healthy volunteers with similar demographic features as controls. rs1799971 polymorphisms were identified with the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). The genotype frequencies were significantly higher in the addicted patients than controls (32.0 % vs 16.9 %, respectively; p=0.027). The prevalence of the G allele was 16.1 % in the addicted group and 8.4 % in the control group (p=0.031). Our study confirmed the association between the rs1799971(G) allele frequency and opioid and other substance addiction, but not with psychiatric disorders.

Open access
Atypical Femoral Fractures due to long-term bisphosphonates therapy

Abstract

Introduction. Bisphosphonates (BPs) represent the main therapy in patients with osteoporosis, although a long-term treatment can lead to atypical fractures.

Material and methods. We conducted a retrospective study between 2008 and 2017 and included 23 female patients with atypical femoral fractures (AFFs). The mean period of BPs therapy administration was 5.2 years. We included 7 subtrochanteric fractures and 18 femoral shaft fractures. Two of the total patients presented bilateral femoral fractures. 18 patients presented prodromal symptoms from 2 to 18 months before the diagnosis of fractures, all of them following low energy trauma. All the patients included in our study underwent surgery with intramedullary nail or gamma nail. The postoperative mean follow-up was 2 years. Results. Of all 23 female patients with a total of 25 fractures – 10 underwent osteosynthesis with gamma nail and 15 underwent osteosynthesis with intramedullary nail. From the total number of patients: 13 patients achieved complete union, 6 presented delayed union and 3 non-union (2 intramedullary nail and one gamma nail), whereas in one patient treated previously with gamma nail we observed implant failure.

Conclusion. The treatment of AFFs after BPs therapy administration represents a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons regarding both surgical technique and postoperative follow-up.

Open access
Determined and declared nicotine content in refill liquids for electronic cigarettes marketed in North Macedonia

Abstract

The use of electronic cigarettes or vaping has been gaining momentum among Macedonian smokers but has also raised great many concerns about the toxicity of liquid refills and its aerosols, especially as the nicotine levels in refill liquids (e-liquids) are not required to be declared accurately or at all by current regulations. The aim of this study was therefore to determine nicotine levels in fifteen samples of e-liquids purchased in specialised shops in Macedonia using gas chromatography. Nicotine concentrations deviated from manufacturer’s declarations in nine of the twelve samples: in five they were higher and in four lower than declared, ranging from −16.7 % to +30.0 %. These significant discrepancies between the actual and declared nicotine concentrations in the analysed e-liquids call for closer attention of the healthcare and the regulating authorities.

Open access
Development of Additional Professional Medical Education Organisation in Accordance with the Principles of Quality Management

Abstract

Issues of education quality have acquired special relevance since the beginning of the 20th century. Implementation of the idea of quality in the educational organisation is promoted by use of the international ISO standards regulating quality of the management system. Certification of a quality management system in an organisation ensures its sustainable development. Experience of such work exemplified by additional medical education organisation is presented in the article.

The present paper addresses approaches to implementation of the following quality management principles: customer focus; leadership; involvement of people; process approach; continuous improvement; evidence-based decision making; relationship management; system approach to management. The structure of processes in the medical education institution is presented including the major process “Professional training and retraining in the field of health care”, main (core) processes: “Educational activities” and “Scientific activities”; management processes: “Strategic planning”, “Documentation management”, “Records management”, “Internal audits”, “Nonconformity management”, “Corrective and preventive actions”, “Monitoring and measurement of processes and educational services”, “Quality management system analysis by senior management”; supporting processes: “Personnel management”, “Work environment management and information support”, “Financial and economic support”, “Library services”, “Methodical support of the educational process and training for teachers”, “Publishing activities”. All processes are designated in a consistent model with special codes, which helps to streamline the document management system in the organisation.

Open access
Dynamics of exhaled breath temperature after smoking a cigarette and its association with lung function changes predictive of COPD risk in smokers: a cross-sectional study

Abstract

Exhaled breath temperature (EBT) is a biomarker of inflammation and vascularity of the airways already shown to predict incident COPD. This cross-sectional study was aimed to assess the potential of EBT in identifying “healthy” smokers susceptible to cigarette smoke toxicity of the airways and to the risk of developing COPD by analysing the dynamics of EBT after smoking a cigarette and its associations with their demographics (age, smoking burden) and lung function. The study included 55 current smokers of both sexes, 29–62 years of age, with median smoking exposure of 15 (10–71.8) pack-years. EBT was measured at baseline and 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after smoking a single cigarette. Lung function was measured with spirometry followed by a bronchodilator test. To compare changes in EBT between repeated measurements we used the analysis of variance and the area under the curve (EBTAUC) as a dependent variable. Multivariate regression analysis was used to look for associations with patient characteristics and lung function in particular. The average (±SD) baseline EBT was 33.42±1.50 °C. The highest significant increase to 33.84 (1.25) °C was recorded 5 min after the cigarette was smoked (p=0.003), and it took one hour for it to return to the baseline. EBTAUC showed significant repeatability (ICC=0.85, p<0.001) and was significantly associated with age, body mass index, number of cigarettes smoked a day, baseline EBT, and baseline FEF75 (R2=0.39, p<0.001 for the model). Our results suggest that EBT after smoking a single cigarette could be used as early risk predictor of changes associated with chronic cigarette smoke exposure.

Open access