Centrality and marginality are important concepts in polysystem theory, and also in network theory. This article examines Olga Kirsch’s position in the Afrikaans literary system by taking into account data spanning from 1900 to 1978. Overall centrality is discussed from the perspective of network theory and related to polysystem theory, and the concept is also applied to the literary system through the use of the Fruchterman and Reingold (1991) force-directed layout algorithm. It is indicated that Kirsch is positioned on the edge of the core or in the semicore, mainly because there are not so many people from the core who had paid attention to her works, but also because she, according to this data set, did not write on the works of others. It is also indicated which important critics, literary scholars and literary historians paid attention to her works, which contributes to her not being positioned on the periphery.
This is a translation of a general introduction to an anthology of poetry by Olga Kirsch. Major themes and motifs of her work are outlined, as well as a short biography of the authoress is presented. The selection from the poems of Olga Kirsch was published to celebrate her 70th birthday on 23rd of September 1994 as Nou spreek ek weer bekendes aan: ’n Keur 1944-1983 [Now I’m Again Addressing Familiar Ones: A Selection 1944-1983]. For the purposes of the translation the ending of the original introduction has been altered.
The aim of the present article is the reconstruction of the chronology of the klip River affair of 1847. Reading primary sources and literature for the natal history in the 1840s I realized that the chronology of the klip River affair is incomplete and incorrect, a d that this affects the analyses of this affair and the whole situation of natal colony at that time. Therefore the decision to reconstruct the chronology of this affair as much as possible and put it straight, in hope that it will be helpful for further studies of kwaZulunatal history during 1840s and 1850s.
Over the last 20 years, literary nonfiction has become increasingly popular among the Dutch reading public. Thanks to increasing sales, translations and literary awards the genre achieved a strong position in Dutch literature. This article analyzes the image of Central and Eastern European countries in Dutch literary nonfiction of the last ten years (2004-14). It searches for characteristics of an orientalist and balkanist discourse and the presence of the imagological centre-periphery model in the works of Geert Mak, Jelle Brandt Corstius, Olaf Koens, Joop Verstraten and Jan Brokken. Contemporary Dutch literary nonfiction contains a euro-orientalist discourse. Characteristics such as underdevelopment, hedonism, obscurity and authenticity are projected on Central and Eastern Europe, which is put in the periphery of Western Europe.
The purpose of this article is to explain the historical significance of J.H. de la Rey’s death by analyzing the general's political involvement at the beginning of the First World War. The author also examines the outbreak of the Boer Rebellion and De la Rey's attitude towards it. The controversies surrounding the night of September 15, 1914 are discussed after providing a detailed illustration of the events leading up to the shooting the criminal activities of the Foster gang). It also analyzes the influence the general and Niklaas van Rensburg had on the Afrikaner society, which was faced with the option of revolting against the British. International media coverage of the accident is used in order to portray the world's reaction to the incident.
The article gives a brief ‘idea history’ of Hesperian melancholy a.k.a. Hesperian depression, the fleeting state of dejection that some humans and animals experience at dusk. The term was apparently coined by the South African poet and naturalist Eugene Marais (1871-1936), who noticed the phenomenon during his field observations of baboons. Marais' observations of primates were in the first place an attempt to shed more light on the evolutionary roots of the human psyche and its afflictions - not in the least his own. A personal focus seems probable in his notes on the use of euphoria-inducing substances among animals and humans, which are an evident reflection of his own morphine addiction; but also in his writings about Hesperian depression. During his lifetime, Marais only published about Hesperian depression twice, once in a very concise article in English, and once in more elaborate form in Afrikaans. The term ‘Hesperian depression’ only became more current when his manuscript on primate behaviour, The Soul of the Ape, was posthumously published in 1963. Since then, the term and its description sometimes appear in (popular) publications of paleobiologists and scholars of the evolution of human behaviour. In psychology and psychiatry, the term was introduced by the eminent American psychoanalyst William G. Niederlander, who presented it in a 1971 article in Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association as an idea of his own. It is evident, however, that he took his cue from Marais, who thus was posthumously plagiarized.
The contemporary Dutch language belongs to European multi-centered languages and has three variations: Dutch of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Dutch in Northern Belgium, and Dutch in Surinam. There are differences among the above variations which mainly regard the pronunciation and lexicon. The Flemish and Surinam variations pose a great challenge, especially for the translators of the Flemish and Surinam literature. Similarly, they pose also a significant theoretical and practical problem for the authors of one and two-language dictionaries of the Dutch language. The contemporary lexicography attempts to register the differences which one can find between the standard of the Dutch language and: its Northern Belgium variation, as well as its Surinam variation. It needs to be noted that lexicographers so far have been paying much attention to lexical differences between Dutch of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Dutch of the Northern Belgium. In this very paper there are described four printed Flemish-Dutch dictionaries and one online dictionary, we also characterize the Prisma Handwoordenboek Nederlands met onderscheid tussen het Belgisch-Nederlands en Nederlands-Nederlands met medewerking van W. Martin en W. Smedts.
In the netherlands regional novels have never been considered as real literary works. in Flanders regional literature had a better status, especially because several writers of the Van Nu en Straks movement such as Stijn Streuvels wrote about regional themes. in Czech literature since 1848 regional themes was viewed as important in novels and stories, mainly till the end of world war ii. in 1932 the Catholic writer Antonín Matula defined the so-called ruralism, which became a movement of mainly Catholic writers from the countryside. Most of them were severely persecuted in a constructed Stalinist show trial against the green international in 1951. in his work Hlasy země v evropských literaturách (The Voice of Earth in European Literatures, 1933) Matula discussed nearly all major european literatures, i.e. Flemish regional writers. it is no coincidence that especially Flemish writers such as ernest Claes, Stijn Streuvels and Felix timmermans, were translated into Czech during the second quarter of the 20th century.