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Helma Schaefer

Abstract

In her article, the author discusses the merits of the German craft bookbinder Paul Kersten (1865-1943) in the development of modern decorative papers as an expression of artistic individuality in the field of applied arts. From the Middle Ages, decorative paper had been used in decoration and bookbinding. Bookbinding workshops had traditionally made starched marbled paper. The interest of Paul Kersten, coming from a bookbinding family, in these papers had already dated from his youth. During his travels abroad, he was aware of the poor state of the bookbinding craft, which was affected by the mass production of books and book bindings as well as the industrialisation of paper production at the end of the 19th century. Kersten helped to introduce Art Nouveau into the design of German bookbinding and the methods of the modern production of decorative papers. At first, he worked as a manager in German paper manufactures and then as a teacher of bookbinding. His work was later oriented towards Symbolic Expressionism and he also tried to cope with the style of Art Deco.

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Věra Thořová

Abstract

The broadside ballad O, radost ma [Oh, My Joy] was, as far as known, first printed in Kutna Hora in 1808. Later, it began to be sung to an unprecedented number of different tunes, inspired by folk and semi-folk songs, broadside ballads, church and artificial songs. Sometimes, the tune even literally quoted the folk melody. Variants of the song continued to appear in all Czech regions throughout the 20th century. In the Chodsko region, the song has become popular and has been sung as a folk song to this day.

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Marta Vaculínová

Abstract

In 1582, the first printed collection of Czech proverbs by Jakub Srnec of Varvažov, Dicteria seu proverbia Bohemica, was printed. It became the basic source of the material for later collections of this kind by J. A. Comenius, J. Dobrovsky and others. It was inspired by the Adagiorum chiliades by Erasmus of Rotterdam. Based on them, it was divided into centuria and decades. Unlike other early modern collections of proverbs, it does not contain only the Latin translation of the mentioned proverbs - its Latin explanatory component is much richer. This is connected with the fact that the collection was originally conceived as a teaching aid for Srnec’s private school for pupils from noble families. Each proverb is accompanied by a number of related, explanatory or antithetical sentences, which resembles the genre of the collections of sentences. The authors of the sentences are given in the margins. There is a large share of ancient classics, medieval anonymous proverbs and biblical quotations. Less than one-third are quotations from early modern authors. Logically, Erasmus is the most represented among them, followed by relatively unknown Christoph Aulaeus, a professor at the university of Erfurt, with his collection of moralistic distichs. The third in terms of the number of quoted statements is the popular early modern educationist Juan Luis Vives. Based on other quoted Humanists and their works, it is possible to infer when the core of the work originated. Most frequently, Srnec used quotations from educational and moralistic handbooks, more rarely also from theatre plays with religious themes. The main aim of the publication of the collection was to prove that Czech proverbs could match not only Latin and Greek ones but also those in other living languages that had already been published for a rather long time. Unlike some educational Lutheran collections of proverbs, Srnec’s collection was not only to enlighten but also to entertain and to make the subject matter taught more pleasant for the students. Not only in that but also in the title chosen and the graphic design, it could have been inspired by the contemporary German collection of proverbs Proverbialia dicteria by Andreas Gartner. The circumstances of the collection’s origin are explained by the author in an extensive preface, in which he deliberately quotes a wide range of proverbs taken from Erasmus’s Adagia. A Czech translation of selected passages of the preface is attached to the article.

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Richard Mahel

Abstract

For his entire life, the Moravian historiographer Beda Dudik exchanged letters with a number of important researchers and supporters of the language and nationally oriented revival in Bohemia, despite the fact that the relations between the two lands were not ideal at that time and their initial ideas of the form of the national-revival processes were significantly different. The paths of mutual understanding and possible cooperation were still being sought and shaped. Nevertheless, Dudik also maintained a lively correspondence with the supporters of multinational state (Austrian) identity. Dudik’s written contacts and his scientific work mirror not only the gradual transformation of his patriotic attitude, but also the actual alteration of his correspondence network, reflecting these changes in ideas and opinions. On the examples of selected written contacts, it is possible to demonstrate some long-term problematic relations between the two lands, based on their different experience, their position in the Habsburg monarchy at the time and their historical development as well as the attempts to bridge these differences through a shared approach to formulating ideas about emancipation efforts within the Habsburg monarchy. These differences are proved by the extant correspondence of B. Dudik.

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Zdeněk Pousta

Abstract

Having passed his secondary-school graduation exam, the young patriot Jaroslav Cisař left Brno to study mathematics and astronomy in New York. He reacted to the fire of war in 1914 by his active engagement in anti-Austrian resistance, whose aim was the restoration of the independence of the Czech nation. After the arrival of T. G. Masaryk in the United States, he became his personal secretary in the spring of 1918. Following the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic, he worked at the Czechoslovak embassy in London, from 1927 in the newspaper Lidove noviny in Brno. After the occupation, he left for emigration, where he was involved in the tasks of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. After the change in the political situation in 1948, he was released from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and was fortunate enough to be employed as an astronomer at the University of St Andrews in Scotland. From the 1970s, he struggled with normalisation authorities over his return to the homeland. That was successfully accomplished in 1980.

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Sestavil Michal Klacek, Marta Čermáková, Štěpánka Běhalová, Váš Jiří Traxler and Tvoje Eva Stejskalová

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Helga Turková

Abstract

The historical story Book of Fate, published by Karel Sabina (1813-1877) in the magazine Květy (Flowers) in 1866, deals with censorship in Bohemia at the beginning of the 17th century. In the romantic tale, Karel Sabina has combined the stories of two printers, Sixt Palma Močidlansky (approximately 1569- 1617) and Ondřej Mizera Jarovsky (†1616), both of whom were known for various censorship scandals. In 1602, Palma was imprisoned and then expelled from Bohemia. The innocent Mizera was even executed in 1616 by Henyk of Valdštejn (1568-1623), the owner of the printing workshop at Dobrovice Castle. The article has revealed what sources Sabina may have used for his work, in which historical figures appear as well. It has even compared the fates of the writer Karel Sabina and the bookprinter Sixt Palma, authors of the 19th and 17th centuries.

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Štěpánka Běhalová

Abstract

The article deals with the publication of the song for the Holy Mass with the incipit Pozdvihni se duše z prachu [Raise, Thou Soul, Thyself from the Dust] in the 19th century. The author of the text of this song is the Premonstratensian Eugen Karel Tupy, also known under the pseudonym Boleslav Jablonsky. This song for the Holy Mass is included in the current unified hymn book in the section of the Ordinary and common chants of the Mass as number 517. In the 19th century, the song was published in several types of printed media. Its earliest extant edition is a broadside from 1845, which was followed by similar editions from 1849 and 1850, 1854, 1855, 1859 and another two undated. In 1852, the author himself included it in the second edition of the prayer book Růže sionská [The Rose of Zion], although it is not part of the first edition from 1845. In the same year, the song was included in the hymn book Písně ke mši svaté pro školní mládež [Songs for the Holy Mass for School Children] and three years later in a hymn book from the same printing house Písně ke mši svaté, k úžitku osady Hostounské a Únětické [Songs for the Holy Mass to Be Used in the Settlements of Hostouň and Unětice] and in 1860 in the Zpěvník pro chrám, školu i dům [The Hymnal for Church, School and Home]. At that time, it also appeared in the contemporary Perla pravých křesťanů [A Pearl of True Christians], compiled by František Křenek and published in 1860, as well as in the prayer book Květinná malá zahrádka [A Small Flower Garden], published in the printing house of Alois Josef Landfras and his son in Jindřichův Hradec around 1860. The song was also included in Písně a modlitby pro studující katolickou mládež [Songs and Prayers for Young Catholic Students] by Blahorod Čap, who had the collection printed in Litomyšl in 1869. The penetration of the text of the song by a renowned poet and writer from broadsides to hymnals and prayer books provides interesting and rare evidence of the journey of an artificial song to the unified hymn book.

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Pavel Muchka

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Petr Mašek