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Open access

Mina Fanea-Ivanovici

Abstract

Crowdfunding, a relatively novel internet-based non-banking funding instrument for startups, innovative, creative or prosocial projects, implies that funders (donors or lenders) and fund seekers (project initiators) interact on a crowdfunding platform. The goal of fund seekers is to raise the necessary amount of money to finance their project, while donors are backers of business or research ideas, social causes or start-up companies. Existing research has proven that for a crowdfunding campaign to succeed, one condition is for the crowdfunding platform to provide the adequate technical functionalities that ensure sufficient financial information both during and after the campaign (such as how the money was used and how the money was returned if the project failed) but also the legal framework through a solid contract between the platform and the fund seeker that can prevent moral hazard of the latter. The purpose of this study is to perform a qualitative analysis of the active crowdfunding platforms in Romania in terms of financial information transparency and to determine whether they fulfil the necessary conditions to ensure fair use of donations by project initiators and distribution of reward to donors

Open access

Fabiana Martinescu-Bădălan and Ramona-Elena Herman

Abstract

In this paper we wanted to demonstrate that improving swimming performance, even over a short period of time, requires a centralized training program. The subjects of the research were checked on a distance of 50m freestyle before and after the application of the centralized training program, and the results were compared with those from the control group who did not benefit from the centralized training program, the latter ones having participated only in the classes of the approved syllabus. All the results from the research were interpreted objectively, the resulting figures being the actual support of this study. The tests and the program applied proved relevant in view of the purpose of this study

Open access

Luminița Giurgiu, Ioan Munteanu and Ilie Gligorea

Abstract

Living in a world that inspires and exhales bits, the presence of a site, whether personal or institutional, is mandatory. But is it just enough to exist in the online space? How can we measure, in particular, internet success and after all, are we reaching the target audience? Whether we are talking about a web page for presenting our own business or about an online business itself, knowing the impact it has on the net is just as important. This is called audience, and to measure it there are some instruments that are to be discussed and analyzed in this article. There will be references on the Land Forces Academy's official site

Open access

Riku-Heikki Virtanen

Abstract

The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD) stipulates an obligation for states to consult persons with disabilities in the development and implementation of legislation and policies with respect of implementing this Convention. Consultations with persons with disabilities have not as yet become a widespread practice in national legal orders. When it comes to EU member states, for example, not all of them incorporate the said obligation in national legislation. In its Concluding Observations the CRPD Committee suggests that the obligation to consult is a cross-cutting duty covering all rights guaranteed in the UN CRPD. Eventually, the draft General Comment No. 7 to the UN CRPD has arrived at a wider interpretation of the scope of an obligation to consult. Although a much wider scope of opportunity to be consulted is provided for the indigenous peoples by the ILO Convention No. 169, it has become a matter of consideration in several cases before regional human rights organs while the convention has not got a significant number of ratifications. Provided that the UN CRPD is much more broadly ratified by the states, will the adoption of this General Comment exert influence on empowering persons with disabilities? In order to find an answer to this question, this article explores the genesis of a general legal obligation to consult persons with disabilities on a permanent basis which would be wider in scope than matters of implementing the UN CRPD in international human rights law.

Open access

Leontin Stanciu and Cristian-Lucian Stanciu

Abstract

Under the conditions of a knowledge-based economy, maximizing the value of the economic entities cannot be achieved solely by basic activities. Fulfilling this fundamental objective implies carrying out other types of activities with a social impact unified under the concept of social responsibility. In this context, the authors aim to empirically investigate this concept both in terms of its evolution and the way it is implemented in the national economies and in the local communities

Open access

Victor Serafimov

Abstract

State practice has showed that geopolitical interests of nations are usually engaged either through diplomatic or military means. The mutual desire to avoid armed conflicts led to concluding multiple multilateral and bilateral international security and defence treaties. This process formed the basis of two major concepts -the Collective security and the collective defense. Both of them require a solid international legal basis, namely - a treaty that settles all forms of interpretations, disputes and actions. Since these treaties define international relations for a certain period, their eventual termination would have a major impact on the relations between different nations as seen numerously in the past decades. The contemporary world has completely different challenges to ensure collective security in the framework of international organizations. Currently major military actors are guarding the national sovereignty and aerospace borders of smaller states, thus making air policing a real diplomatic issue that should face an international legal framework. The institutional interaction between NATO and the EU as international organizations could lead to complete integration in terms of defense of the EU Member states in the near future. These issues could and should be met with the means of the main sources of the Law of treaties

Open access

Iulia Dumitrascu-Baldau and Dănuţ Dumitru Dumitrascu

Abstract

Systemic thinking is an instrument used in any field to understand the complexity of the changes and challenges that take place, and to discover the reciprocal links and conditions between the internal elements that determine the functioning of the system. Understanding how the international project with virtual project teams works as a system can help us better address the issues that arise in managing it, helping to increase the success rate. The international project with teams in the virtual environment, due to the diversity it embraces, in various aspects, especially at the cultural level, is considered a complex system, and can be seen as a system of systems. This term applies to systems in which interactions that could appear between different elements and deliverables are difficult to represent by a mathematical model or to be anticipated. In order to highlight the complexity of the international project system, we chose to represent project management in the virtual environment as a subsystem through the subsystems that compose it. This graphic representation can be used as a theoretical model of how to manage an international project with teams in the virtual environment

Open access

Laviniu Bojor

Abstract

Access to valuable information has been, is and will continue to be the focus of all the nation states. The benefits of access to information cannot be questioned, but the volatile nature of this Power Information has shown over time that a state's inability to keep its secrets leads to the loss of this power. The present paper captures historical milestones of information gathering activity that have greatly changed the balance of power between the state actors involved

Open access

Ioan Gabriel Popa and Valentin Pîrvuţ

Abstract

Armed conflicts are a reality of the present world. Military power is an active actor in domestic and international relations. Defense must have the financial allocations necessary to sustain a flexible and modern army. The macroeconomic and geostrategic factors, including the change of power poles from the West to the East, the demographic changes and the limited resources are elements that will deeply reconfigure the trends in military expenditure. This is the case in less developed areas of the world where trends will bring instability and will put additional, internal and external pressure on the challenges of defense and security. NATO countries have assumed the 2% of GDP target for defense expenditure, but are making great efforts to reach this level. In 2016, only 4 out of 29 NATO members, or 14% reached the target of 2% of GDP for military expenditure and 20 out of 29 NATO countries spent less in absolute terms in 2016 compared to 2014

Open access

Nicolae Moro and Ioan Virca

Abstract

A pouch is a small flexible bag, typically carried in a pocket or attached to a belt in which the soldiers can store various items necessary to carry out military operations in different time, season and weather conditions. Its high storage capacity, strength and ergonomics are some of the absolutely essential features for these simple, but necessary equipment