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Open access

Jan Hunady, Marta Orviska and Peter Pisar

Abstract

Background: Transfer of knowledge from academia to business is one of the crucial issues for creating innovation. Creation of university spin-offs could significantly improve this transfer. Objectives: The main scientific aim is to examine the differences between universities in European countries and identify factors affecting the probability of creating the university spin-off. The paper is also focused on the differences in the specialization and financial sources of universities. Methods/Approach: We compare selected indicators for higher education institutions in European countries and examine potential determinants affecting the probability of academic spin-off formation. With respect to the main aim, the logit and probit regression analyses have been used. Results: Our results show that the creation of spin-offs is typical on the one hand for highly specialized universities or on the other hand for universities with a wide variety of study programs. They should also have an optimum number of doctoral students and have mostly less funding from tuition fees. Conclusions: Several indicators appear to play an important role in the formation of university spin-off. These indicators are the level of specialization, the share of tuition fees in the University budget, and the share of Ph.D. and foreign students.

Open access

Mike Patterson and Daniel Friesen

Abstract

This paper includes an introduction to the concept of spreadsheet optimization and modeling as it specifically applies to combinatorial problems. One of the best known of the classic combinatorial problems is the “Traveling Salesman Problem” (TSP). The classic Traveling Salesman Problem has the objective of minimizing some value, usually distance, while defining a sequence of locations where each is visited once. An additional requirement is that the tour ends in the same location where the tour started. Variants of the classic Traveling Salesman Problem are developed including the Bottleneck TSP and the Variation Bottleneck TSP.

Open access

Tamara Ćurlin, Božidar Jaković and Ivan Miloloža

Abstract

Background: Twitter is the most popular microblog platform. Individuals, companies, organizations, and even governments use Twitter on a daily bases and get vast benefits from it. Twitter also has been valuable for the tourism sector, especially in developing business strategies, planning and studying tourist decision-making processes. Objectives: Goal of the paper is to identify the trends, patterns and the research gaps of the research focusing on the Twitter usage in tourism. Methods/Approach: A bibliometric analysis was conducted in order to identify significant authors, journals, and institutions who engaged in the research-oriented towards Twitter utilization in tourism. In addition, text-mining analysis has been conducted in order to extract and identify the topics of the papers investigating the utilization of Twitter for tourism research. Results: Research of Twitter utilization in tourism has increased substantially in the last decade, with most of the research conducted in the United States and Japan. Extracted topics are focused on distinctive themes, such as network analysis, word of mouth, and destination management. Conclusions: New topics have emerged, such as the utilization of Twitter in crisis communication and terrorist attacks, as well as the integration of Twitter and other social media such as Flickr.

Open access

Yonpae Park, Sungwoo Jung and Yousef Jahmani

Abstract

The activity-based costing (ABC) systems emerged as a management accounting innovation in the mid-1980s in response to dissatisfaction with traditional management accounting techniques and heightened international competition. Although ABC provides many advantages for managerial decision making, ABC tends to be outdated due to its limitations and is substituted by the time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) systems. TDABC requires estimates of only two parameters: how much it costs per time unit of capacity to supply resources to activities and how much time it takes to perform each activity. TDABC allows incorporation of variation in the time demands made by different types of processes and consequently the representation of all possible combinations of activities that a process performs. This paper uses TDABC to calculate marketing costs and describes TDABC as a useful technique to reduce marketing resource costs and to support effective marketing decision making in various contexts such as marketing processes restructuring, marketing mix choices, customer profitability and price differentiation for customer classes.

Open access

Nadine El Masri and Abubakr Suliman

Abstract

This paper aims to provide insight into talent management and employee recognition variables, in an effort to understand if these management practices are, in a way, implemented in the Research Institutions in Qatar. It also aims to examine the link of these two constructs to employee performance and to suggest a pathway to improve the current practices, if any, in order to enhance the work performance. The sample of the study consisted of 180 full time employees who were randomly selected and surveyed using an online personalized questionnaire. The results of the empirical research uncover that talent management and employee recognition can significantly affect the level of employee performance, as well contributing to the organizational success and positioning. This study also found that talent management and employee recognition are interrelated variables that affect employee performance. Talent Management and employee performance are seen as strategic tools to implement strategic objectives and to enhance employees and organization’s performance. The study concludes with a set of recommendations for both practitioners and researchers working in Qatar and beyond. The results of the study emphasize the importance of managing employee recognition in shaping work performance. It seems to be individuals’ need for recognition, esteem and social status continues to be a higher order need irrespective of time and context. This paper is the first paper in Qatar and the Middle East that examines the role of talent management and employee recognition in shaping employee performance in the context of research institutions.

Open access

Susil Kumara Silva, B N F Warnakulasuriya and B J H Arachchige

Abstract

This paper is to develop a measurement scale for perceived construction project success to be used for management studies in construction project context. First, a systematic literature review was conducted. A questionnaire was administrated to a sample of 108 construction projects and 47 (44%) questionnaires were received. Exploratory factor analysis was carried out and required steps were followed in the process to establish validity and reliability of the measurement scale. Initially nine criteria with 25 items which can be used for evaluating and driving construction projects were found. Results of factor analysis reveal seventeen measurable items which were loaded on three dimensions/factors. Practitioners can use these criteria as a guiding framework for monitoring and driving their construction projects. This scale will be instrumental for those who are aspired to do research in construction project context. This study may be the first to discuss a measurement scale for construction project success with the viewpoints of Sri Lankan construction professionals. Also this scale has attempted to go beyond the traditional criteria and emphasize the requirement of having a long term perspective. This study add to the body of knowledge of project success criteria and construction project management.

Open access

Janusz Opiła

Abstract

Background: Efficient management of the knowledge requires implementation of new tools and refinement of the old ones - one of them is visualization. As visualization turns out to be an efficient tool for transfer of acquired knowledge, understanding of the influence of visualization techniques on the process of knowledge sharing is a necessity. Objectives: The main objective of the paper is to deepen the understanding of the relation of visualization to other knowledge sharing paths. The supplementary goal is a discussion of constraints on visualization styles in relation to readability and efficiency. Methods/Approach: Due to the ambiguous nature of the problem, case analysis was selected as a research method. Two research papers have been selected for that. The first one focused on agrotourism, introduces a general use theoretical tool suitable for various purposes, such as consumer sentiment analysis. The second one evaluates possibilities of revealing an implicit organizational structure of an organization by means of visual analysis using interaction graphs. Results: Visualization is an important part of data analysis and knowledge transfer process. Hybrid visualization styles enhance information density but may decrease clarity. Conclusions: In order to maximise the role of visualization in a knowledg tranfer process, the special care must be devoted to clarity, the optimal level of details and information density in order to avoid obfuscation.

Open access

Andreas Cebulla and David Wilkinson

Abstract

Background: An ageing workforce is a challenge for businesses that are increasingly expected to adapt workplaces to enable employees to remain in work longer. Emerging evidence highlights employer practices to attract or retain older workers. This paper explores employers’ motivations for introducing measures to accommodate an older workforce in three European case study countries. Objectives: The objective is to illustrate and understand different approaches to, and stages in, adjusting workplaces to accommodate an ageing workforce. Methods/Approach: The study combines case studies, including site visits and interviews, with expert consultations. Results: The research finds marked between-country differences, with United Kingdom case studies highlighting a strong emphasis on age-neutral practices shaped by legislation; age-confident practices in Germany resulting from collaborative arrangement between employers and trades unions (with legislation permissive towards age discrimination); business in Spain remaining relatively inactive, despite evidence of people expecting to work longer in life. Conclusions: Diverging employer motivations and responses to the challenge of an ageing workforce risk a multi-speed Europe in age-confident workplace innovation. A concerted effort that draws on the multiple factors that motivate initiative would be required to achieve good working conditions for older workers across Europe.

Open access

Claudia Ogrean

Abstract

Over the last few decades Big Data has impetuously penetrated almost every domain of human interest/action and it has (more or less consciously) become a ubiquitous presence of day to day life. The main questions this exploratory paper seeks to address (throughout its two parts) are the following: What is the (actual) impact of Big Data on Business & Management and How can businesses (through their management) leverage the potential of Big Data to their benefit? This second part of the paper is dedicated to the investigation of the demand-side of the big data industry – by highlighting some evidences (and projections) on the impact of big data analytics on Business & Management (both at aggregate and granular level) and exploring what companies could and should do (through their management) in order to best capitalize on the opportunities of big data and avoid/minimize the impact of its threats.

Open access

Irena Palić, Sabina Hodžić and Ksenija Dumičić

Abstract

Background: In recent years’ income inequality has been an economic issue. The primary instrument for redistributing income is personal income tax. However, based on economic theory income inequality concerns indicators such as wages, transfer payments, taxes, social security contributions, and geographical mobility. Objectives: The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of certain labor market indicators on personal income taxation in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FB&H). Methods/Approach: Since personal income taxation consists of a very broad definition and for the purpose of this research only, income from dependent (employment) activity is observed. The econometric analysis is conducted using error correction modeling, as well as forecast errors variance decomposition. Results: The error correction model is estimated, and the cointegrating equation indicates that monthly wage and number of employees statistically significantly positively affect personal income taxes in FB&H in the long-run. After two years, the selected labor market indicators explain a considerable part of forecasting error variance of personal income tax revenues. Conclusions: The implementation of reforms in the labor market and tax policies of the FB&H is suggested. In order to achieve necessary reforms, efficient governance and general stable political environment are required.