The present article investigates subtitling issues in Hungarian and Romanian connected to the highly popular TV mini-series Band of Brothers. The introductory part offers a brief presentation of the importance of audiovisual translation and the challenge of fansubs to the detriment of professional translators, but we also offer definitions of military culture before analysing terms describing the branches of service (mostly) in the US Army.
The present article investigates issues of military terminology in the Hungarian and Romanian subtitles of the highly popular TV mini-series Band of Brothers. The introductory part offers a brief presentation of terms, possible definitions, and their relevance for translators/subtitlers, and then – based on a possible mind map of military terms, including army units, equipment, ranks, commands, tactics, rewards, and punishments – we analyse samples belonging to army equipment and ranks (commanders) in the Hungarian and Romanian subtitles, arguing for the importance of reliable sources and consistency, which directly contribute to the quality of translations or subtitles. A special field of investigation may be represented by the specific military abbreviations and acronyms, which may offer an objective insight into the level of expertise of the translators/subtitlers.
Morality is often referred to as the code of conduct of society. This code determines what is considered correct behaviour and enforces values society deems beneficial. Values themselves are protected by laws and social or moral norms. Authors combine all the mentioned concepts and convey them through the actions taken or not taken by characters. Their writings provide the reader with characters’ motivations, reasoning and try to line them up with a final judgment – to see whether individual morals and values line up with the ones upheld by the rest of society. When dealing with morality in narratives of pain and trauma, the objective is then not only to analyse the protagonists’ psyche but also consider societal pressures. The focus of our analysis lies in Pavel Vilikovský’s novel The Autobiography of Evil, in which the author depicts morally sound characters becoming morally ambiguous while living in an oppressively authoritarian political system. Our aim is to explore the pain and trauma of Jozef K. whose moral core is affected by blackmail and threats. His actions are misguided and they perpetuate the cycle of violence instead of stopping it.
Karel Čapek’s The War with the Newts combines a wide assortment of textual forms and genres to portray the assumed history of the newts in close connection with that of the human race. Newspaper articles, scientific studies, notes of drunken sailors, and other inserts form a unique collage in style as well as in layout. In the various editions of the originally 1948 Hungarian translation of the novel, the textual arrangements of the most composite part of The War with the Newts – the second book – are significantly altered compared to the Czech edition. Moreover, the introductory sentences of the inserts, the typefaces, and the stylistic differences tend to suggest that there is a different notion of text and reading underlying the Hungarian versions. Other unifying tendencies traceable in the translation, e.g. standardized language use or concepts of character identity, can be correlated with these features. As the borders of various text-types within the Czech text are reorganized and re-established in the translation, a different position of the reader and a different idea of the literary text emerge. My aim is to demonstrate the translational differences and try to account for them with an underlying concept of text and translation embedded in the Hungarian variant.
In our contemporary society the use of Information and Communications Technologies is an inseperable part of everyday life. Information and Communications Technologies can be of great benefit in learning foreign languages for both the learner and the teacher alike. As in every change that tends to happen gradually yet unnoticeably, there are the advantages and the downsides that cannot be overlooked nor ignored. Information and Communications Technologies when incorporated in education also unavoidably has these dichotomous variables. What are these variables in the implementation of Information and Communications Technologies in education and do the positive factors outweigh the negative ones? The object of the research is the use of information communication technologies in foreign language lessons. The aim of the research is to reveal the peculiarities of using information communication technologies in the teaching of foreign languages. Research questions in this study are the following: What peculiarities of using information communication technologies arise in the process of teaching foreign languages in high school classes? How is the use of information communication technologies influenced by the age of the learners? What Information Communication Technologies are used in foreign language lessons? Findings showed that the self-perception, help to clients, professional ethics, trust are the components of professional responsibilities in the daily professional practices of social workers and social pedagogues. Realizing and accepting the fact that Information and Communications Technologies and Information Technology in general have become a part of our everyday life, one cannot ignore the importance of it in the field of education. Systematic evaluation of the implementation of Information and Communications Technologies in education in order to assure its effectiveness as a tool that acts as an aid for not only the pupils but also the teachers should become a normal part of the educational system. It should be viewed as a means of improving the lesson and as a means of support for those pupils who are in serious need of it.
The paper focuses on the life and poetics of Cuban writer Reinaldo Arenas, an important representative of Cuban gay literature, who, due to his sexual orientation and eventual opposition to the Revolution, was silenced by the Cuban government and exposed to continual threats. His novels, which depict the hardship of and discrimination against ordinary people and gay members of Cuban society (for example Old Rosa and Farewell to the Sea), reveal also signs of the deep trauma that the writer suffered and its impact on his writing.
This paper deals with the British dystopian novel Never Let Me Go by Kazuo Ishiguro, in which human clones are forced to donate their organs in an alternate reality set in 1990s England. Through the characters of the novel, various manifestations of suffering are examined from the viewpoint of existentialism. The whole concept of donation might be understood as a metaphorical expression for human life, as well as the omnipresent consciousness of its finitude. Ishiguro has prepared the ground for disturbing discussion where two ostensibly different groups of people – clones, whose only purpose is to donate their vital organs, and “normal people” as the recipients – suddenly appear to be indistinguishable in terms of mortality and the general experience of human existence. This paper focuses on the concept of existential anguish in the context of the novel’s story. Using an unobtrusive science fiction narrative, Never Let Me Go encourages readers to contemplate the essence, meaning and purpose of human life, and it quietly points to topics that are usually treated as highly sensitive: the inevitability of death and apparent absurdity of human existence.
Transgressability of Borders in Ion Nete’s Novel Ninge cu suflete de morţi and in Its Hungarian Translation
My paper focuses on a novel by a contemporary Romanian writer who lives in Miercurea-Ciuc and whose entire work can be characterized by the central importance of the topic of border, specifically the thin border between life and death, the transgressability of the border of this world and the world of dead souls. The mythical-mystical-religious atmosphere of his prose constitutes a difficulty for the translator who, through his/her work, tries to cross the border of two languages and two cultures.
“Being on the border” is a dangerous condition/state, and every culture tries to assure a safe border-crossing process. I will approach this topic from several points of view. On the one hand, I will analyse a sequence of the chosen novel in which a funeral scene is presented, while, on the other hand, I will reflect on how the translator is situated on the border when s/he has to do the translation of a ceremonial text (part of the folklore of an archaic source culture) to a target culture (namely, Hungarian culture) in which there is not a correspondent for this specific text type.
Apart from the ellipsis occurring in discourse as a fairly common cohesive device, the literary dialogue oftentimes uses ellipsis as a stylistic or rhetorical device or as a means of endowing characters with idiolectal or sociolectal features. This paper examines such instances of ellipsis which contribute to the construction of the literary heroes’ identity through their speech, while providing them with features distinguishing them from the other characters either in terms of social identity or emotional state. The study is based on examples depicted from the dialogue of a number of literary works written in English and selected so as to exhibit a variety of functions which ellipsis acquires to complete some heroes’ identity or state of mind. Considering the importance of the information embedded in such ellipses, a contrastive approach to translation is obvious. The analysis focuses on the translation of ellipsis from English into Romanian and scrutinizes the situations when structural differences between English and Romanian prevent formal equivalence, which triggers an important loss of information in translation. The findings lead to conclusions relative to translation solutions that can be adopted to compensate for the scarcity of structural similarities between the two languages in contact in translation.
This paper presents the case of Scotland as a traumatized nation haunted by ghosts of the past. Scottish national identity has been profoundly influenced by the country’s loss of sovereignty in the 1707 Act of Union. As a result, the stateless nation deprived of agency built its literature on the foundations of idealized stories of its heroic past. It was not until the 1980s that Scottish literature started to tackle the collective trauma and gave rise to works focusing on the weak and the exploited rather than the brave. Janice Galloway and A. L. Kennedy both epitomize this new vein of literature of trauma and explore the links between national and individual experience and strategies for healing the trauma.