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Marcin Wielgosz

Abstract

The article is an attempt to confront Lev Manovich’s soft technological determinism with two contemporary media - the smartphone and the mobile application called Instagram. The analysis is based on the characteristics of a term called “new media” identified by Manovich, with emphasis on variation and cultural transcoding. The verification of accuracy and the use of the soft technological determinism in the context of selected new media has varied by the discourse on contemporary new media and constitutes an interesting point of view. The evolution and the development of both variation and cultural transcoding (two elements conditioning their universality which continually shows an upward trend) regarding mobile media, give an opportunity to forecast their productive potential.

Open access

Silja Lani

Abstract

This article presents the results of a study in which the Estonian audiences of various stage versions of the same opera (live opera theatre performance and live-in-HD, which were shown at cinemas) during the same season were compared in a social constructivist paradigm to underline whether, and to what extent, audiences’ membership, cultural consumption preferences, attitudes, expectations, values and perceptions differ or coincide, thereby revealing what audiences distinguish as the differences or similarities between live and mediated opera performances. It presents the preference dimensions of the Estonian opera audience and provides an opportunity to discuss the issue of whether a technologically mediated cultural event offers any new opportunities for traditional opera to expand its audience, or whether it captures the audiences and creates competition for the theatres whose performances are not mediated. The survey was carried out among audiences attending performances of Carmen (Georges Bizet, 1875) in the 2014/2015 season at five different venues in Estonia. The findings revealed that, due to the fact that the hierarchy of motivators for the target groups of live and live-in-HD opera differs, it does not support the idea that opera theatre will gain new audiences from cinema or vice versa.

Open access

Adrian Rudczuk

Abstract

External marketing communication of companies is a purposeful process of transferring information to the company’s environment - society, competitors, clients and receiving their feedback. Based on the signals, the company adapts its way of communication. Choosing the most suitable type of communication may be one of the factors deciding about a company’s success. Even the best offer would not be able to attract customer’s attention if the information did not reach one. The article combines secondary data - results of the research conducted in Polish companies regarding the use of communication tools, and primary data obtained from own surveys carried out on students regarding the perception of those tools. The purpose of the article is to evaluate the perception of different communication forms by young customers.

Open access

Anna Karwacka

Abstract

Online marketing is nothing else than a model of traditional marketing in cyberspace; it is a hybrid of previous forms of mass communication. In the first decade of the 21st century, the instruments used in marketing in political communication were revolutionized by the emergence of solutions enabling the interactions of users on the Internet. This type of marketing is characterized by a range of concepts, and includes online advertising campaigns, websites, interactive social networks, video-sharing sites, which encourage users to regularly post new material, websites that enable the publication of photos, images and other files or those that are based on content provided by users i.e. Wikipedia (including blog sites). Contemporary, internetized election campaigns combine low costs with effectiveness because location no longer limits social contacts in the exchange of election-related information.

Open access

Ülo Pikkov

Abstract

This article analyses and maps the links between caricature and animated film, as well as their development during the post-World War II era, in communist Eastern Europe. The article also deals with the specific nature of animation production under the conditions of political censorship and the utilisation of Aesopian language as an Eastern European phenomenon for outmanoeuvring censorship.

Open access

Liina Keevallik

Abstract

The article suggests that cinematic figures can be divided into two basic groups - barbarian and intellectual. The definition is based on the level of the figures’ intelligibility in the works of Jean-Luc Godard and Andrei Tarkovsky. As Claude Lévi-Strauss’ myth analysis shows, there are structural similarities between cinematic figures and myths, the article searches for a closer, more site-specific link, engaging fairy tales, i.e. local myths, as a more efficient way of observing the distinctive features of the figures in specific regions.

Open access

Gabriela Piechnik

Abstract

The publication presents how the Internet and new trends in modern communication influence the Polish language. Digital forms of communication provoke people to use language shortcuts, borrowings and make users do not care about language correctness. The author attempts to outline the future development of the Polish language.

Open access

Riho Västrik

Abstract

This article investigates how director Valeria Anderson constructed heroes in the documentaries she directed between 1960 and 1985. It also asks how far one could go with social criticism in the post-Stalinist/pre-Perestroika era, how pointed the revelations of economic disorder could be, and what rank of leadership could be blamed for the occurrences of these problems. The article concentrates on the documentaries made by Valeria Anderson that depict positive heroes sacrificing their personal interests for the good of the homeland. The narratives are examined by using discourse analysis.

Open access

Teet Teinemaa

Abstract

This article explores whether a specifically regional quality can be identified in the following Finnish and Estonian multi-protagonist/network narrative films: Aku Louhimies’ Frozen Land (Paha maa, Finland, 2005) and Veiko Õunpuu’s Autumn Ball (Sügisball, Estonia, 2007). The article begins by providing an overview of the discussion regarding multi-protagonist films - a film form in which several lead characters are commonly connected via accidental encounters. Thereafter, an examination is made of how the form’s widely recognised generic qualities are represented in the Northern and Eastern European examples. As an overview of the discourse illustrates, multi-protagonist film is mainly interested in urban spatiality, contingency and human interconnectedness. It is also shown that these examples from the cinemas of small nations follow global trends rather closely. At the same time, Frozen Land and Autumn Ball can be seen as representing a specifically regional sensibility that is not only interesting in its own right, but which can also be understood as directly influencing the character-action.

Open access

Alessandro Nanì and Pille Pruulmann-Vengerfeldt

Abstract

Stemming from the concept of active audiences and from Henry Jenkins’ (2006) idea of participatory culture as the driving force behind the transformation of public service broadcasting into agencies of public service media (Bardoel, Ferrell Lowe 2007), this empirical study explores the attitude and behaviour of the audiences of two crossmedia projects, produced by the public service media of Finland (YLE) and Estonia (ERR). This empirical study aims to explore the behaviour, wants and needs of the audiences of cross-media productions and to shed some light on the conditions that support the dynamic switching of the engagement with cross-media. The study’s results suggest that audiences are neither passive nor active, but switch from one mode to another. The findings demonstrate that audience dynamism is circumstantial and cannot be assumed. Thus, thinking about active audiences and participation as the lymph of public service media becomes problematic, especially when broadcasters seek generalised production practices. This work demonstrates how television networks in general cannot be participatory, and instead, how cross-media can work as a vehicle of micro participation through small acts of audience engagement (Kleut et al. 2017).