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Epistaxis management - our point of view and literature review

Abstract

Nasal haemorrhage or epistaxis is the most common otolaryngologic emergency. It affects about 60% of the population and a percentage of 6% do not cease spontaneously, medical approach being needed.

The management of epistaxis varies depending on its severity and etiology. The therapeutic conduct of this ENT emergency is based on three main principles: 1. local haemostasis; 2. detection and ceasing of the cause; 3. evaluation and correction of hypovolemia if necessary. Haemostasis can be done by chemical or electric cauterisation after identifying the bleeding source, by nasal packing, by endoscopic or external surgery or, in special cases, when none of the above methods returns any results, embolization. The current paper emphasizes our experience and a brief literature concerning epistaxis management in patients presented in the Emergency Room, in chronic cases of vascular intranasal tumors with recurrent bleeding, in iatrogenic haemorrhages, and none of the least we will bring into discussion the treatment applied for patients diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

Open access
Otologic symptomatology associated with the temporomandibular joint disorder

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Functional connection between the stomatognathic system and the acoustic-vestibular apparatus is approached with interest in topical studies, in an attempt to elucidate in depth the cause-effect relationship between pathology and symptom. The temporomandibular joint disorder may be accompanied by a series of otological symptoms such as otalgia, tinnitus and vertigo. For this reason, for a correct diagnosis, a complex clinical examination is required both on the acousticvestibular analyzer and on neighbouring structures.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We conducted a clinical study, on a group of 97 patients diagnosed with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) and treated for this pathology. All patients included in the study were evaluated by the dentist and the ENT specialist. The patients were treated at the dental clinic and then returned to the ENT clinic two months after completion of the treatment for re-examination, recording changes in otologic symptoms in order to obtain the results of the study.

RESULTS. Of the 97 patients with TMJD, 58 also associated otic symptomatology (otalgia – 74.13%, tinnitus – 53.45%, vertigo – 43.10%). The evaluation done two months after treatment of the temporomandibular joint disorder revealed a significant remission of otalgia (decrease in Mean VAS from 6.05 to 2.49), followed by vertigo (from 5.08 to 2.52) and by tinnitus (from 4.84 to 3.84). Important changes also occurred in the results of the vestibular assessments.

CONCLUSION. The most common otological symptom of patients with TMJD is auricular pain. Otalgia, tinnitus and vertigo can be improved by dental treatment of the temporomandibular dysfunction, auricular pain having the highest rate of remission.

Open access
Primary sinonasal mucosal melanoma – Case report and literature review

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Primary sinonasal mucosal melanoma is a rare tumor with a poor survival rate. There is an inherent difficulty in diagnosing these lesions, especially because their complex anatomic locations and symptoms can be frequently confused with other benign or malignant processes. The purpose of our study was to report a difficult case and review the literature and recent research on therapeutic modalities.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We herein report a 61-year-old female patient, with a history of right eye enucleation and prosthesis, who presented with obstruction of the left nostril, anterior and posterior mucopurulent rhinorrhea, anosmia, left facial numbness, left exophthalmia accompanied by ipsilateral epiphora and decreased visual acuity.

RESULTS. Clinical and imagistic testing revealed a large, grayish, fleshy tumor localized in the left maxillary sinus, with extension to the left orbit (producing osteolysis of the inferior and medial orbital walls), nasopharynx, ethmoidal cells and left frontal sinus. Pathological and immunohistochemical examination confirmed the diagnosis of mucosal melanoma. Other primary sites were excluded. The patient succumbed shortly after, following only palliative treatment.

CONCLUSION. Early diagnosis of primary sinonasal mucosal melanoma is essential but very difficult to detect. Any symptoms such as unilateral epistaxis or nasal obstruction in a patient over the age of 60 should be rendered suspicious. Pathological and immunohistochemical examination for diagnosis and prognostic factors are important. Although surgery is the first option for treatment, one must consider, according to tumor staging, radiotherapy and chemotherapy with immunotherapy as a viable course of treatment for advanced cases.

Open access
Signal void and pseudo-pneumatized sinus in fungal rhinosinusitis – Case report

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Signal void, or the absence of signal on MRI sequences, in the sinonasal region may be encountered in fungal rhinosinusitis cases with the aspect of a pseudo-pneumatized sinus, leading to diagnostic errors.

CASE REPORT. We present the case of a 75-year-old woman referred to our clinic for complete and persistent right-sided nasal obstruction. The patient was evaluated using sinus CT and contrast-enhanced head MRI. Opacification of the right maxillary, ethmoid and frontal sinuses as well as of the right nasal fossa were seen on CT, with maxillary sinus expansion and osseous erosion. The MRI showed T2 signal void in the maxillary sinus with extension to the nasal fossa, creating the appearance of a pseudo-pneumatized sinus, and hyperintense signal in the ipsilateral anterior ethmoid and frontal sinuses. The patient underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. The dual imaging evaluation of the patient aided the preoperative differential diagnosis and choosing the surgical approach.

Open access
Some forensic aspects of the nasal septal deformities

Abstract

OBJECTIVES. We reviewed the foreign aspects in nasal septal deformities.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. Mladina classification of the nasal septal deformities was used.

RESULTS. Types 5 and 6 have been dominantly inherited. The mechanism of the onset and possible connection to the trauma against the nose, as well as clinical implications of the remaining four types of the nasal septal deformities, have been explained and described in detail, giving the court expert witnesses the excellent opportunity to make a reliable and valuable finding.

CONCLUSION. Type 5 and type 6 nasal septal deformities are never the consequence of the trauma against the nose. In most of the cases, this also concerns type 3. This type as well as type 7 require the latero-lateral and anterior-posterior X-rays of the nasal bones in cases when the nasal pyramid is concurrently deformed. Types 1 and 2 in most of the cases are connected to trauma against the nose.

Open access
Sphenoidal and ethmoidal sinoliths

Abstract

Sinoliths are rarely found calculi of paranasal sinuses. The most rarely they were found in the sphenoidal sinuses. At a routine Cone Beam CT exam of a 52-year-old male patient clinically silent small sinoliths were found bilaterally in the sphenoidal sinuses and a larger posterior ethmoidal sinolith was found on the right side. To our knowledge, such multiple sinuses involvement has not been previously reported.

Open access
Complex disposition of an enigmatic pathogen: rare electron microscopic manifestations in nasal rhinosporidiosis

Abstract

Rhinosporidiosis is a polypoidal disease of the nose and mucocutaneous tissues, the diagnosis of which is based on the presence of round bodies believed to be causative agents of the disease. Historically, the round body has been considered to be a sporangium of a fungus Rhinosporidium seeberi but without any convincing evidence. Round bodies contain numerous daughter cells, which are likely in the infective stage and are shed through a rupture in the wall of the round body. The released single-celled organisms eventually develop into round bodies on availability of suitable transformative trigger and favourable environment. Surgical excision of the polyp by electrocautery is the only effective treatment; however, recurrence may occur due to spillage of infective endospores in the surrounding mucosa during removal. There are many enigmatic features of the causative agent of this disease, which have been baffling researchers for more than a century. Here we present some rare electron microscopic and previously unreported features of the coat of the round body and single-celled organism in nasal rhinosporidiosis.

Open access
Computed-tomography volumetric study of the ethmoid labyrinth

Abstract

Morphological variability of paranasal sinuses is well known for endoscopic surgeons and anatomists alike. The ethmoid sinus is the most complex and variable of all paranasal sinuses, due to the fact that its development is not yet well known and is influenced by many factors. Volumetric studies of the sinuses have been made using dried skulls, cadaver heads and imaging studies, but there are still not sufficient data in order to name a standard value for each sinus. Few data can be found especially regarding the ethmoid sinus. In this paper, we measured the volumes of ethmoid lateral masses, and for anterior and posterior groups of cells, using imaging studies and a volumetric feature of our imaging studies. Results showed an average volume between 7.34 cm3 and 8.39 cm3 for the ethmoid lateral mass, between 4.33 cm3 and 4.92 cm3 for the anterior ethmoid and between 3.01 cm3 and 3.47 cm3 for the posterior ethmoid groups. We also found that the average volume of the anterior ethmoid occupies between 58-59% of the whole volume, while the posterior ethmoid occupies only 41-42% of this volume.

Open access
Current insights in CSF leaks: a literature review of mechanisms, pathophysiology and treatment options

Abstract

A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak occurs when there appears a fistula between the dura and the skull base and it is usually characterized by discharge of cerebrospinal fluid from the nose. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks may have many etiologies, the most common being trauma. The most common site of dural lesion is the cribriform plate of the ethmoid. Diagnosis can be achieved by a multitude of techniques, high-resolution computed tomography being the modality of choice and it may be completed with magnetic resonance imaging or cisternography. Treatment may be either conservative, either surgical, related to the cause, the site and the duration of CSF leak. Conservative treatment usually includes strict bed rest, elevated bed head and no straining, nose blowing or stretching, with resolution of the majority of traumatic CSF leaks in seven days. Surgical treatment consists of a variety of approaches (intracranial/extracranial, open/endoscopic). The future trend is represented by minimally invasive endoscopic approaches, with a success rate of almost 90%; however, open transcranial or extracranial interventions still have indications in the surgical management. CSF leaks must be correctly diagnosed and treated, because the risk of intracranial complications increases 10-fold when the leakage persists.

Open access
Difficulties in the surgical management of head and neck cancer patient

Abstract

Malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract are high morbidity bearing and life-threatening diseases, which require thorough care from diagnostic suspicion and confirmation to surgical and/or oncologic treatment and rehabilitation. Difficulties in managing head and neck cancers arise from delays in diagnosis and treatment caused by either patient-related factors or healthcare system-related factors. Tumor origin and stage determine whether surgical excision is feasible, the approach required for safe excision, the extent of functional and aesthetic sacrifice required to attain oncologic safety and the need for reconstructive surgery. A thorough and systematic preoperative risk versus benefits assessment to select potential surgical candidates and give realistic outcomes is important from both a medical and a legal point of view. Because tumors in the head and neck region frequently involve more than one system and sensory organ, potential loss of function from either the disease course, surgical or nonsurgical treatment should be taken into account form a quality of life perspective. Effective management of head and neck cancer patients requires the cooperation and combined effort of a multidisciplinary team of surgeons, physicians and other workers over a long period of time which, in the absence of a specialised head and neck cancer centre and guidelines, can lead to increased morbidity and mortality, and patient dissatisfaction.

Open access