Objectives. Body fat content, fat distribution, and adiponectin level are important variables in the development of obesity related complications. Anthropometric indices may provide an economic and faster method in measuring the risk for complications through their predictive effect of fat distribution and adiponectin concentration. We aimed to determine, which of the waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) may be the best predictor for the total fat percentage (WF), visceral fat level (VF), and subcutaneous whole-body fat (SCWBF). We aimed also to investigate the potential use of the anthropometric measures and fat distribution as predictors for the salivary adiponectin level in the healthy adult males. Subjects. A total of 88 adult males aged between 18−25 years with a wide range of BMI were studied. Anthropometric indices were measured using standardized methods and salivary adiponectin level was assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. In path analysis of the Structural Equation Model (SEM) using IBM@SPSS AMOS, version22, BMI and WC, but not WHR, were strong predictors for WF and SCWBF (p<0.05). BMI but not WC was a strong predictor for VF (p<0.001). WF was strong predictor for SCWBF (p<0.001), but not for VF. BMI, WC, WHR, WF, VF, and SCWBF were poor predictors of the salivary adiponectin level. Conclusion. BMI is the best predictor for the total body fat and fat distribution. However, WHR seems to be of a little value and the salivary adiponectin level independent of BMI and body fat in healthy adult Malay males.
Dibyendu Dutta, In Park, Hiwot Guililat, Samuel Sang, Arpita Talapatra, Barkha Singhal and Nathaniel C. Mills
Objective. Testosterone depletion induces increased germ cell apoptosis in testes. However, limited studies exist on genes that regulate the germ cell apoptosis. Granzymes (GZM) are serine proteases that induce apoptosis in various tissues. Multiple granzymes, including GZMA, GZMB and GZMN, are present in testes. Th us, we investigated which granzyme may be testosterone responsive and possibly may have a role in germ cell apoptosis aft er testosterone depletion. Methods. Ethylene dimethane sulfonate (EDS), a toxicant that selectively ablates the Leydig cells, was injected into rats to withdraw the testosterone. The testosterone depletion effects after 7 days post-EDS were verified by replacing the testosterone exogenously into EDS-treated rats. Serum or testicular testosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. Using qPCR, mRNAs of granzyme variants in testes were quantified. The germ cell apoptosis was identified by TUNEL assay and the localization of GZMK was by immunohistochemistry. Results. EDS treatment eliminated the Leydig cells and depleted serum and testicular testosterone. At 7 days post-EDS, testis weights were reduced 18% with increased germ cell apoptosis plus elevation GZMK expression. GZMK was not associated with TUNEL-positive cells, but was localized to stripped cytoplasm of spermatids. In addition, apoptotic round spermatids were observed in the caput epididymis. Conclusions. GZMK expression in testes is testosterone dependent. GZMK is located adjacent to germ cells in seminiferous tubules and the presence of apoptotic round spermatids in the epididymis suggest its role in the degradation of microtubules in ectoplasmic specializations. Thus, overexpression of GZMK may indirectly regulate germ cell apoptosis by premature release of round spermatids from seminiferous tubule lumen.
M. Hedayati, S. Niazmand, M. Hosseini, Y. Baghcheghi, F. Beheshti and S. Niazmand
Objectives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E on the oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant defense enzymes in the heart and aorta of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rats. Methods. The animals were divided into 4 experimental groups: Group 1 (Euthyroid) received tap water, Group 2 (Hypothyroid) received 0.05 % of PTU in dissolved in their drinking water, Group 3 (PTU+Vit E) hypothyroid rats treated with vitamin E, and Group 4 (Euthyroid+Vit E). Vitamin E was injected daily (20 mg/kg) to groups 3 and 4 via daily gavage for 6 weeks. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, total thiol levels, and the activities of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were evaluated in the aortic and cardiac tissues. Results. A significant decrease of thyroxine (T4) serum levels confirmed hypothyroidism in rats, which received PTU. The MDA level increased and total thiol level decreased in the hypothyroid group compared to control group (p<0.001). Th e activities of SOD and CAT significantly decreased in the hypothyroid rats in comparison to the control. Vitamin E treatment resulted in increased levels of total thiol, SOD, and CAT within aortic and cardiac tissues and decreased levels of MDA in comparison with the hypothyroid group (p<0.01−p<0.001). Conclusions. PTU-induced hypothyroidism resulted in oxidative stress. Chronic administration of vitamin E to hypothyroid rats decreased the oxidative stress markers in the aortic and cardiac tissues.
I Prieto, AB Segarra, M Martinez-Canamero, M De Gasparo, S Zorad and M Ramirez-Sanchez
The cardiovascular control involves a bidirectional functional connection between the brain and heart. We hypothesize that this connection could be extended to other organs using endocrine and autonomic nervous systems (ANS) as communication pathways. This implies a neuroendocrine interaction controlling particularly the cardiovascular function where the enzymatic cascade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an essential role. It acts not only through its classic endocrine connection but also the ANS. In addition, the brain is functionally, anatomically, and neurochemically asymmetric. Moreover, this asymmetry goes even beyond the brain and it includes both sides of the peripheral nervous and neuroendocrine systems. We revised the available information and analyze the asymmetrical neuroendocrine bidirectional interaction for the cardiovascular control. Negative and positive correlations involving the RAS have been observed between brain, heart, kidney, gut, and plasma in physiologic and pathologic conditions. The central role of the peptides and enzymes of the RAS within this neurovisceral communication, as well as the importance of the asymmetrical distribution of the various RAS components in the pathologies involving this connection, are particularly discussed. In conclusion, there are numerous evidences supporting the existence of a neurovisceral connection with multiorgan involvement that controls, among others, the cardiovascular function. This connection is asymmetrically organized.
Objective. The aim of this study was to assess whether microRNA-146a and its adapter proteins TNF receptor associated factor6 (TRAF6) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK1) may be changed in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, following regular moderate exercise.
Methods. Forty adult male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into four groups (n=10), including sedentary control (SC), sedentary diabetic (SD), healthy sixty-day exercise (H60E), and diabetic sixty-day exercise (D60E) groups. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. After 48 h, blood glucose levels >250 mg/dl was included to diabetic rats. After 2 days of diabetes induction, the exercise protocol began. Animals were exposed to 5 days of consecutive treadmill exercise for 60 min/day with the 22 m/min speed for 60 days. The kidneys of the rats were removed and microRNA was extracted from them using the miRCURYTM RNA isolation kit.
Results. In diabetic rats, statistical analysis revealed a significant decrease in miR-146a expression, non-significant decrease in IRAK1 mRNA expression, and non-significant increase in TRAF6 and NF-kB mRNA expression compared to the SC group. Exercise led to a non-significant increase in the expression of miR-146a and NF-kB mRNA in the kidneys of the diabetic group as compared to the SD group, significant increase in TRAF6 and IRAK1 mRNA expression compared to the H60E group, and significant increase in TRAF6 mRNA expression compared to the SD group.
Conclusion. The present data indicate that exercise might be able to help in the prevention in the diabetic nephropathy development.
S Ozmen, O Timur, I Calik, K Altinkaynak, E Simsek, H Gozcu, A Arslan and A Carlioglu
Objectives. NLR (neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio) and PLR (platelet-lymphocyte ratio) are prognostic markers of differentiated thyroid cancers. In our study, we evaluated NLR, PLR and C-reactive protein (CRP) for predicting the occurence of differentiated thyroid cancer. This is the first study that compares NLR and PLR to C-reactive protein indifferantiated thyroid cancer not only papillary cancer but also folliculer cancer.
Methods. This study includes 51 papillary carcinoma, 42 papillary microcarcinoma and 31 folliculer carcinoma patients attending to our outpatient Endocrinology Clinic at Erzurum Region Training and Research Hospital between 2009 and 2014. The control group include 50 age, sex and body mass index matched healty subjects. Blood counts and CRP were measured at the day before surgery. Thyroglobulin was measured after 6 months of operation.
Results. There were positive correlations between tumor diameter, age, white blood cell (WBC) and thyroglobulin levels. There were also positive correlation between NLR, PLR and CRP levels.
Conclusion. In our study, we found out that higher NLR and PLR was associated with higher levels of thyroglobulin which indicates worse survival. CRP levels were also associated with poorer tumor profile but the determining rate was lower according to ROC analysis
FA Farrugia, G Martikos, P Tzanetis, A Charalampopoulos, E Misiakos, N Zavras and D Sotiropoulos
Objective. We conducted an extensive review of the literature and tried to cite the most recent recommendations concerning the pheochromocytoma (PHEO).
Methods. Pub Med and Google Scholar databases were searched systematically for studies concerning pheochromocytomas (intra-adrenal paragangliomas) from 1980 until 2016. Bibliographies were searched to find additional articles.
Results. More than four times elevation of plasma fractionated metanephrines or elevated 24-h urinary fractionated metanephrines are keys to diagnosing pheochromocytoma. If the results are equivocal then we perform the clonidine test. If we have not done it already, we preferably do a CT scan and/or an MRI scan. The patient needs pre-treatment with α1-blockers at least 10–14 days before operation. Alternatives or sometimes adjuncts are Calcium Channels Blockers and/or β-Blockers. Several familial syndromes are associated with PHEO and genetic testing should be considered.
Conclusions. The biggest problem for pheochromocytoma is to suspect it in the first place. Elevated metanephrines establish the diagnosis. With the proper preoperative preparation the risks during operation and the postoperative period are minimal. If there is a risk of the hereditable mutation, it is strongly suggested that all the patients with pheochromocytoma need clinical genetic testing.
Objectives. Compared to type 1 diabetes, the role of the immune and autoimmune pathogenetic mechanisms is much less studied in the type 2 diabetes. Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) have a leading role in inflammation, insulin resistance, and vascular damage. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the polymorphisms in TLR4 gene and different stages in the glucose continuum from prediabetes to the type 2 diabetes and chronic microvascular complications.
Materials and Methods. The study included 113 patients with the type 2 diabetes, 29 participants with prediabetes, and 28 controls. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for genotyping Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphism, followed by restriction analysis.
Results. The difference in the genotype frequency for both polymorphisms in patients with the type 2 diabetes or prediabetes compared to that in controls was not significant. Patients with heterozygous genotype of Asp299Gly polymorphism had a higher prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (42.9%) than participants with homozygous genotype (9.0%) (OR [95%CI]=7.61 [1.41–41.08]; p=0.018). No association was established for diabetic polyneuropathy and nephropathy. Prevalence of chronic diabetes complications was not related to Thr399Ile polymorphism.
Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms seem not to be associated with the type 2 diabetes and prediabetes but Asp299Gly may contribute to diabetic retinopathy predisposition.
G Tazegul, TS Ogut, H Bozoglan, O Dogan, N Yilmaz, T Ulas, O Salim, R Sari, HA Altunbas and MK Balci
Objective. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare disease characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenic purpura, neurologic abnormalities, fever, and renal insufficiency. The association or co-existence of thyrotoxicosis or antithyroid drugs with TTP has not been previously reported.
Subject and Results. Herein, we present a 54-year-old female patient newly diagnosed with toxic multinodular goiter accompanying with TTP, possibly triggered by either thyrotoxicosis or antithyroid drugs.
Conclusions. The present report is the first in the literature to demonstrate the co-existence of these two diseases and the use of plasma exchange as a modality to treat both conditions.
Sona Scsukova, Mlynarcikova A. Bujnakova, A. Kiss and E. Rollerova
Objectives. Development of nanoparticles (NPs) for biomedical applications, including medical imaging and drug delivery, is currently undergoing a dramatic expansion. Diverse effects of different type NPs relating to mammalian reproductive tissues have been demonstrated. Th e objective of this study was to explore the in vitro effects of polymeric nanoparticle poly(ethylene glycol)-blockpolylactide methyl ether (PEG-b-PLA NPs) on functional state and viability of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs), which play an important role in maintaining ovarian function and female fertility.
Methods. The GCs isolated from porcine ovarian follicles were incubated with the different concentrations of PEG-b-PLA NPs (PEG average Mn=350 g/mol and PLA average Mn=1000 g/mol; 0.2-100 μg/ml) or poly(ethylene glycol) with an average molecular weight of 300 (PEG-300; 0.2- 40 mg/ml) in the presence or absence of stimulators, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; 1 μg/ml), androstenedione (100 nM), forskolin (10 μM) or 8Br-cAMP (100 μM), for different time periods (24, 48, 72 h). At the end of the incubation, progesterone and estradiol levels produced by GCs were measured in the culture media by radioimmunoassay. Th e viability of GCs was determined by the method using a colorimetric assay with MTT.
Results. Treatment of GCs with PEG-b-PLA NPs induced a significant decrease in basal as well as FSH-stimulated progesterone secretion above the concentration of 20 and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, PEG-b-PLA NPs reduced forskolin-stimulated, but not cAMP-stimulated progesterone production by GCs. A dose-dependent inhibition of androstenedione-stimulated estradiol release by GCs was found by the action of PEG-b-PLA NPs. Incubation of GCs with PEG-300 significantly inhibited basal as well as FSH-stimulated progesterone secretion above the concentration of 40 mg/ml. PEG-b-PLA NPs and PEG-300 significantly reduced the viability of GCs at the highest tested concentrations (100 μg/ml and 40 mg/ml, respectively).
Conclusions. The obtained results indicate that polymeric NPs PEG-b-PLA might induce alterations in steroid hormone production by ovarian GCs and thereby could modify reproductive functions.