Browse

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 522 items for :

  • Physical Education x
Clear All
Open access

C. A. Morales

Abstract

A geometric simplification of a recent proposal for a new geometry of the penalty area for football (soccer) is presented. A simplified line is necessary because the fully mathematical curve previously proposed can be difficult to implement in the real world of football, which has thousands of tournaments at all –economic and generational–levels of the sport. The idea behind the proposal is that the game and its fairness can be improved if the penalty area is drawn according to mathematics or a measure of actual scoring chance.

Open access

A. Karpov

Abstract

Generalized knockout tournament seedings for an arbitrary number of participants in one match are designed. Several properties of knockout tournament seedings are investigated. Enumeration results for knockout tournament seedings with different properties are obtained. Several new generalized knockout tournaments seedings are proposed and justified by a set of properties.

Open access

J. Perl

Abstract

The players’ positions of tactical groups in soccer can be mapped to formation-patterns by means of artificial neural networks (Kohonen, 1995). This way, the hundreds of positional situations of one half of a match can be reduced to about 20 to 30 types of formations (Grunz, Perl & Memmert, 2012; Perl, 2015), the coincidences of which can be used for describing and simulating tactical processes of the teams (Memmert, Lemmink & Sampaio, 2017): Developing and changing formations in the interaction with the opponent activities can be understood as a tactical game in the success context of ball control, space control and finally generating dangerous situations. As such it can be simulated using mathematical approaches like Monte Carlo-simulation and game theory in order to generate optimal strategic patterns. However, in accordance with results from game theory it turns out that in most cases the one optimal strategy does not exist (e.g. see Durlauf & Blume, 2010). Instead, a variety of partial strategies with different frequencies were necessary – an approach that is mathematically interesting but has nothing to do with soccer reality. An alternative approach, which is developed in the following, is to interrupt the strictness of a single strategic concept by creative elements, which improves flexible response to opponent activities as well as prevents from being analyzed by the opponent team.

The results of respective simulation reach from improving strategic behaviour to recognizing strategic patterns and in particular to analyzing role and meaning of creative elements.

Open access

S. Hüttermann, B. Noël and D. Memmert

Abstract

In the last thirty years, an increasing interest in sport sciences regarding the analysis of expert athletes’ gaze behavior has become apparent. This narrative review provides an overview of the use of eye tracking systems in high-performance sports from 1987 to 2016. A systematic search of the PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and WebofScience databases was conducted. The search was performed using the keywords eye tracking, eye movement, gaze behavior/patterns, and visual search strategies in combination with high-performance sports, elite athletes, high-class athletes, sport experts, and top-athletes. It yielded a total of 86 studies of which almost half were conducted computer-based or in front of a screen. Most studies dealt with the analysis of gaze behavior during dead ball situations while also focusing on differences between expert athletes and novices. More high-quality intervention studies are essential to determine if there are ideal gaze strategies and, if yes, how it is possible to learn/implement these.

Open access

Dragan Koković

Abstract

General level of culture does not mean that everyone is expected to become, for example, a writer, an artist, a poet, an actor or a painter but it assumes enabling people to enjoy culture and arts, and expand the range of possible enjoyments in life and the world. Likewise, introduction of children, boys and girls into the world of body culture should enrich them in this regard. Ethical and moral changes will significantly change the form of physical culture and education, and the sports life in general. Aggressiveness, false prestige, self‐centredness, foul motive of achievement will be found under review. There may come a time when the sports victory will be considered and respected primarily as a result of successful mastering the strengths of one's own nature and their reasonable use. Any violence against one's own body will be considered as educational and sports misfortune or accident, as something that belongs to the ethical despise and not to the established and existing ethical norms.

Open access

Jovo Radoš

Abstract

The theme presented is aimed at attempting to perceive the fundamental qualities of the man’s personality (body, soul and spirit) from the philosophical, anthropological and theological point of view and, at the same time, to establish the value reflections towards its (current and universal) existential orientations. Namely, today's experience shows us that tendencies with notable prevailing of corporality over the other constitutive properties of the human being are constantly getting stronger. The body cult is vigorously stressed: body building and fitness clubs, as well as special gyms and wellness facilities (saunas, hydro massage baths, tepidariums are advertised, which should satisfy the increased corporal‐hedonistic and corporal‐aesthetic motives. This disturbing of the essential and human structure established by God demands the return to the original settings of Christian trichotomy (not serving the body but serving of the body), whereby a balanced and harmonious relationship between the body, the soul, and the spirit is developed by equally bearing in mind all three areas on which all three "gymnastics" are tuned and effectively performed, which leads to overall development and fulfilment of a human being.

Open access

Zerf Mohammed, Boras Fatima Zohar, Benali Gourar, Bengoua Ali and Mokkedes Moulay Idriss

Abstract

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the Aerobic endurance training as indicators of physiological training status among male soccer players. A total of 138 well-trained first division soccer players under 18 years were tested. Testing was based on the Cooper test as a one of simple tests to estimate VO2max. BMI and BFP as valued anthropometric measurements to control body change relative to maximal oxygen consumption during dynamic exercise with large muscle groups benefit training time soccer training experience. Performance in this experience was based on the subjection that 60 ml/kg/min of VO2max is the minimum fitness requirement for male soccer players to play at the elite level. Admit in this study as a protocol to categorise our sample into two groups (up and under the range VO2max ± 60 ml/kg/min) and it was based on statistics applied and the design used. Our results highlighted the importance of aerobic performance up to 60 ml/kg/min as the minimum fitness requirement to enhance the players' aerobic capacity allied to maximal heart rate relative to BFP levels as a better parameter in comparison with BMI for the prediction of low VO2max concomitant to the physiological training status as requests soccer performance demand.

Open access

Silvia Priklerová

Abstract

The ability to perform the stable playing performance during the whole match to larger extent depends on sufficient level of development of conditioning abilities. Technique of playing activities of an individual, decision-making process of players and especially speed of the game are influenced by already mentioned abilities. The aim of our study was to recognize the level of motor performance in regional centres of handball and at the same time to verify the efficiency of sports preparation. This programme includes the change of weekly microcycle practice, consisting of 2 conditioning trainings focused on strength and endurance. The research was realized in these age categories: younger (n=40) and older juniors (n=38). To evaluate the level of motor abilities we selected 5 simply performed activities: bench press (explosive strength of upper extremities ), run for 8x5 metres (speed with change of direction), sit-ups for 2 minutes (power of abdominal muscles), standing long jump with legs together (explosive strength of lower extremities) and 12 minutes run (aerobic endurance). When following microcycle programme weekly, the results of motor test pointed out the positive influence of this programme on the development of strength and aerobic endurance (p≤0.05). In category of older juniors the performance in test of 12 minutes run has fallen significantly in comparison with the first testing (p≤0.05). The result of this study indicates the lack of recommended aerobic running practice in weekly microcycles of monitored teams.

Open access

Paulina Górska, Jana Krzysztoszek, Agata Korcz and Michał Bronikowski

Abstract

The interest in the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance is still considerable. However, more ad­vanced research is required to better understand this relationship. Therefore, the purpose of the current review is to describe the state of knowledge of the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance. Furthermore, this relationship is explored with reference to five components of physical fitness, asking which ones have the most beneficial effect on maintain­ing and improving learning outcomes. In this review, we emphasize studies that advance the understanding of this issue, which is still incomplete. These studies offer hope of deeper understanding of the type of selected physical fitness components and their impact on academic performance. Further research into the association between components of physical fitness such as flexibility, strength and endurance of muscles and academic performance in children, while controlling for important covari­ates, is needed.

Open access

Stanislav Kraček, Dagmar Nemček, Petra Kurková, Wioletta Lubkowska and Šimon Tomáš

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyse and compare the level of selected coordination abilities of pupils with communication ability disorder (CAD) and able-bodied pupils in the same age category. Two groups of participants were recruited for the study: (1) pupils attending special elementary school for children with CAD (n = 17; 5 girls and 12 boys in mean age 11.2 ± 0.7 years), (2) and ablebodied pupils (n = 20; 12 girls and 8 boys in mean age 11.4 ± 0.5 years) without gender differentiation. 5 standardised tests measuring coordination abilities were used as a primary research method (Šimonek 2015): low jump test, spatial orientation ability test, circles through running test, one leg stand test, catching ball test. Group differences were analysed with Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples. The level of significance was α < 0.05. We found significantly higher level of spatial orientation ability and static balance displayed by able-bodied pupils comparing pupils with CAD. The level of lower limb kinaesthetic discrimination ability, rhythmic ability, frequency and reaction time in pupils with CAD are comparable to the level of able-bodied pupils. We recommend that children with CAD should participate in regular physical activities and sports after compulsory education together with able-bodied children to improve their fine and gross motor ability, coordination abilities as well as overall physical fitness.