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Uroš Škrubej, Črtomir Rozman and Denis Stajnko

Abstract

This paper describes a computer vision system based on image processing and machine learning techniques which was implemented for automatic assessment of the tomato seed germination rate. The entire system was built using open source applications Image J, Weka and their public Java classes and linked by our specially developed code. After object detection, we applied artificial neural networks (ANN), which was able to correctly classify 95.44% of germinated seeds of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

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Open access

J. Csanádi, J. Fenyvessy and S. Bohata

Abstract

There is no standard limit value for somatic cell count (SCC) of raw goat milk in the EU despite that excellent hygienic quality milk is needed for the manufacture of fermented milk products or cheese varieties. Mastitis often results such high SCC - besides the potential risk for humans - that the clotting of milk will not be perfect, resulting slack curd with higher whey releasing; furthermore, wrong structure, ripening, bad sensory properties of cheese can also be its consequences. In this paper, we report the SCC of milk samples from five different goat breeds bred in Hungary, measured with two fast methods compared with the results from the reference method. Furthermore, we investigated the applicability and the accuracy of the MT-02 (Agro Legato Ltd., Hungary) instrument. We determined that the White Side test and the instrument MT were suitable for the estimation of possible risks and consequences in the case of the use of high SCC milk before production. The general summarized average milk SCC was 6.64 × 105 ml−1. The highest difference between the results from MT-02 and the fluorometric (reference) method was 5 × 105 ml−1, but it was a singular, extreme value. The r2 of the calculated linear calibration equation was 0.7819; consequently, this method seems to be applicable in the measurement of SCC with MT-02 instrument. Furthermore, the SCC of samples did not differ significantly by genotypes and by seasons (spring: 5.85 × 105 ml−1, autumn: 6.22 × 105 ml−1).

Open access

G. Diósi, M. Móré and P. Sipos

Abstract

Most objectively, the dough rheological methods can characterize the quality of winter wheat. The Farinograph test is the traditionally used one in Hungary, but the importance of other methods, such as Alveograph and Extensograph tests, are getting more widely known due to the interest and requirements of the industry and export markets. The Hungarian Standard on wheat quality follows the changes in the global markets; this is why the falling number appeared in the MSZ (Hungarian Standard) 6383 in 1998. As the interest in the results of other rheological test increased from our accession to the European Union, the evaluation of these parameters on different varieties has become an important issue of qualification and in 2012 limit values for Alveograph and Extensograph parameters appear in the Hungarian wheat quality standard. Additionally, while the baking value was the only evaluated parameter of the Farinograph test earlier, the standard was supplemented with limit values for water absorption capacity and stability too.

In this study, we revised different diagrams of Farinograph tests again from the previous years to reveal whether the new limit values for these Farinograph parameters change the valuation of wheat flour samples, therefore whether the quality groups in which the samples were ranked change considering the new requirements.

Open access

J. Csapó, G. Holló, I. Holló, R. V. Salamon, Sz. Salamon, Sz. Toró and Zs. Csapóné Kiss

Abstract

Until the middle of the last century, selenium was considered to be toxic, but recently it turned out to be a micronutrient with important physiological effects, whose lack impedes the functioning of several enzymes, while in the case of a prolonged deficiency, disease processes can also occur in the body. Hungary belongs to the selenium-deficient regions in Europe; therefore, our aim was to contribute to the improvement of selenium supply of the population through increasing the selenium content of milk and dairy products. A daily supplementation of 1-6 mg organic selenium to the feed of dairy cows increases the selenium content of milk from the value of 18 μg/kg to 94 μg/kg in 8 weeks, decreasing again to the initial value in 6 weeks after stopping the supplementation.

After producing various products from the control milk (18 μg/kg selenium content) and the selenium-enriched milk (53 μg/kg) obtained from dairy cattle fed on a feed supplemented with 2 mg selenium/day, we concluded that the selenium content of selenium-enriched milk compared to the products produced from the control milk increased from the value of 18.6 to 58.5 μg/kg in the case of yogurt, from 66.0 to 138.1 μg/kg in the case of telemea, from 80.8 to 163.7 μg/kg in the case of orda (urdă) and from 88.6 to 200.0 μg/kg in the case of semi-hard cheese obtained by mixed-coagulation. The selenium content of whey also increased significantly (from 8.8-9.7 μg/kg to 20.1-25.8 μg/kg), which could also be used as a food for people or feed for animals. According to our calculations, the selenium requirements of the developing organism could be satisfied by the consumption of 2-3 dl selenium-enriched milk until the age of 8 and with 4-6 dl selenium-enriched milk until the age of 20.

Open access

A. Véha, P. Szabó, T. Bartók and E. Gyimes

Abstract

We examine 4 different DON-toxin-containing (0.74 - 1.15 - 1.19 - 2.14 mg/kg) winter wheat samples: they were debranned and undebranned, and we investigated the flour’s and the by-products’ (coarse, fine bran) toxin content changes. SATAKE lab-debranner was used for debranning and BRABENDER lab-mill for the milling process. Without debranning, two sample flours were above the DON toxin limit (0.75 mg/kg), which are waste. By minimum debranning (and minimum debranning mass loss; 6-8%), our experience with whole flour is that the multi-stage debranning measurement significantly reduces the content of the flour’s DON toxin, while the milling by-products, only after careful consideration and DON toxin measurements, may be produced for public consumption and for feeding.

Open access

D. Fekete, M. Stéger-Máté, V. Bőhm, G. Balázs and N. Kappel

Abstract

The experiment was carried out in three regions in Hungary (Jászszentandrás, Cece, Újkígyós) in 2013 to determine the fruit quality of grafted watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.). The “RX 467” seedless watermelon variety was grafted on two commercial rootstocks “FR STRONG” [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] and “RS 841” (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne). The lycopene and flesh colours are important quality characteristics even of the selfrooted and grafted watermelon. Some differences can be attributed to different environments, technological methods and to the type of rootstockscion combination. Lycopene is a strong antioxidant; therefore, we considered to examine the content change. Regardless of growing location, the lycopene concentration and the chroma (C*) showed the best result in the case of interspecific rootstock. The result also showed that in two regions (Jászszentandrás, Cece) we can find negative correlation between the lycopene concentration and the L* value of the flesh colour.

Open access

M. Móré, G. Diósi, P. Sipos and Z. Győri

Abstract

The paper shows the results of some experimental researches on the rheological characteristics of the dough obtained from the flour of three winter wheat varieties. We used valorigraph test to determine the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, because it determines the quality of the end-products. Winter wheat varieties (Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag) were produced and their samples were collected on Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen in the crop year of 2011/2012. We have carried out a short-term storage experiment (from July to August, 2012). We analysed the changes in water absorption capacity, dough stability time and valorigraph quality number for 3 times (24.07.2012, 31.07.2012, 21.08.2012) during short-term storage. Our results showed that the baking quality of Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag improved during the storage period.

Open access

L. Szabó and Zs. H. Horváth

Abstract

The paprika oleoresin, that is an oil soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum Annum Linn or Capsicum Frutescens, is used often to raise the colour agent content of paprika powders. We investigated how the colour agent content of paprika powder samples with added oleoresin change in the course of storage. The colour agent content of 7 different quality powders was increased with 7-75% using two types of oleoresin. The initial colour agent content of the samples changed between 41 and 169 ASTA units. The powders were made from Chinese, Peruvian and Hungarian paprika. The colour agent content of the samples was measured throughout 10 months. The measured values were analysed using ANOVA. The decrease of colour agent content varied between 22 and 51 percent, while the average reduction was 33 percent. The initial colour agent content of the paprika powder samples did not influence the colour agent content decrease significantly. The effect of the quantity of added oleoresin did not influence either the colour agent content decrease significantly. The decrease of the colour agent content of the Hungarian paprika samples significantly differs from the Chinese and Peruvian paprika samples colour agent content decrease.

Open access

Cs. Németh, L. A. Castillo, F. Horváth, I. Zeke, L. Friedrich, Cs. Balla, Z. Németh and P. Póti

Abstract

There are numerous new technologies whose implementation in food industry is hampered by the fact that people hesitate to invest in expensive systems which they cannot be sure will work or at least are questionable in terms of a given product. Until recently, preservation by HHP, high hydrostatic pressure, was such a technology, and still is today in some branches of the food industry. Investigations were conducted to answer the question of whether the literature, the laboratory, and the industrial (or at least pilot plant) measurements and results agree with one another. We compared the literature data with two HHP systems which were significantly different in terms of treatment capacity, but their efficiency in killing microbes was studied under the same treatment parameters. Our results show that in nearly all cases only minimal differences exist between the data in the literature and the measurements taken on the two appliances.