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Marsel Cara

Abstract

Externalizing disorders (ED) refer to behaviours of a child/adolescent that negatively affect persons external to them. So far, no large-scale study on ED in adolescents attending secondary schools has been carried out in Albania. The current study explored gender and age differences in relation to externalizing disorders (ED) in a large sample of adolescents in 8 secondary schools situated in Tirana, the capital of Albania. The study adopted a mixed-methods approach. A survey consisting of two questionnaires SDQ-T and WOST were completed by 42 teachers (randomly selected) on 614 pupils randomly selected in their K7-9 classes. The teachers were divided in 4 groups which participated in one focus group meeting. Gender-related differences confirmed previous studies that indicate a higher prevalence of ED in the male population. Evidence on age-related differences was mixed, with quantitative data indicating higher levels of ED in the 14 and 15-year olds in comparison with the 13-year olds, and qualitative data suggesting the opposite trend, that is, higher levels in 13-year olds attending year 7 adjusting to transition in secondary schools, gradually decreasing in years 8 & 9. Recommendations based on the findings of the study are given regarding interventions that should target coping with school transitions in secondary school, promoting positive social skills and competencies, emotion regulation techniques and awareness of risks related to unsupervised use of social apps/media in schools.

Open access

Daniel T. Yokossi

Abstract

This paper examines Mood Patterns in some passages from Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus and Achebe’s Anthills of the Savannah. More specifically, two extracts from the above mentioned prose fiction have been purposefully selected, described and analyzed from the Systemic Functional Linguistics perspective in order to reveal how the lexicogrammatical features of the interpersonal meaning of the studied extracts underpin the perception of the two authors throughout their novels. The article goes further and highlights the similarities and differences in the interpersonal functions of the extracts under scrutiny in terms of their contents and how the English language has been used therein to construe the above pinpointed authors’ world views of the issues dealt with in their writings. The findings of the study have, among others, revealed that the gap between Achebe’s and Adichie’s writings is not full size and that the former has actually paved the way to the latter.

Open access

Gentjana Taraj

Abstract

Inclusive education guarantees the right of education for every child despite their physical and/or mental disabilities. In other words inclusion aims at placement of special education students in general classrooms giving learners equal possibilities of education within the differences in their abilities to learn. Unfortunately, the implementation of inclusive education in Albania is still facing lots of difficulties. Traditionally, Albanian children with disabilities are segregated into separate learning environments. However, during the last two decades attempts are made to integrate them in the mainstream education. Although we are far from a successful implementation of inclusive education we consider it as very important since it maximizes the learning experiences of both mainstream and disabled learners. In this paper, the factors related to the inclusion of learners with disabilities in the mainstream education are discussed. Drafting of an inclusive curriculum which is the same for all schools and all learners, whether they are in mainstream or special schools is considered as crucial. The paper raises the questions of changing the attitude of educators in regard to learners with disabilities, increasing their professional knowledge about the learning differences as well as highlighting the tools of how to address each of them so that equal possibility to gain knowledge within the limits of capability are given to all learners. The significance and relevant effects of these factors will be the basis of the conclusion of this paper.

Open access

Osenweugwor Ngozi Aihie and Martins Noyosase Igbineweka

Abstract

This study investigated the differential efficacy of Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT), Systematic Desensitization (SD) and Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT) in reducing the test anxiety status of undergraduates in a Nigerian University. To guide the study two research questions were raised and two corresponding hypotheses formulated. The study, a pre-test, post-test non-equivalent control group quasi experiment adopted a 3x2x2 factorial design. A sample of one hundred and twentythree undergraduate students in a Nigerian University participated in the study. A twenty-item Test Anxiety Inventory adapted from Spielberger (1980) was revalidated and administered to the sample to collect data for the study. The internal consistency of the instrument had a Crombach’s alpha value of 0.82. Data collected were analysed using Analysis of Variance statistics and the hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance. The results revealed statistically significant decreases in test anxiety of participants in two of the treatment groups – Systematic Desensitization and Solution Focused Brief Therapy. The effectiveness of the two treatments on test anxiety was found to be independent of gender of the participants. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy had no statistically significant effect on the test anxiety of the participants. It was concluded that Systematic Desensitization and Solution Focused Brief Therapy are effective methods of reducing test anxiety in learners. Based on the results, recommendations were made.

Open access

Rrezarta Draçini and Rezearta Murati

Abstract

Language is an instrument for communication and it has the obligation to serve people improving it. But in fact there are moments when language and its rules, decided by a group of people, goes against this purpose, creating so a disorientation between the users and misapprehension of the messages transmitted. In the Orthography of Albanian Language printed in 1973 (p.23) is written “The foreign names has to be written according to the tradition of their use in Albanian taking in consideration the pronunciation in their relative language.” Last 20 years in publications, periodic and visual medias in Albania we can note that the Albanian language is in crossroad between: a rule imposed in a situation of complete isolation and the actual situation of multiple contacts that makes the rule a barrier. Nowadays the same names are written in different forms losing so the correlation with the original and causing a enormous problem not only linguistic but cultural and interpersonal, too. For example referring to high school textbook of literature we will find the names of the American authors as pronounced, in the following forms: Teodor Ruthk, Robert Louell, Xhon Berrimen, Robert Krili, Allen Ginsbergu, Majkell Meklur, Xhek Spicer, Diane Uakoski etc. If an Albanian student would like to prepare a homework and he goes to search in internet information or to find bibliography about these authors, will be impossible to have results, because these names don’t exist in that form. According to the EU and UN norms, the names must be written in respect of the original form. Therefore the Albanian language should reflect social, political and cultural changes of the society, an open society needs an flexible and opened language because as Hudson said “Linguistics ignores the society for its harm”.

Open access

Young Mudavanhu and Nicholas Zezekwa

Abstract

Science teachers need an adequate understanding of the nature and processes of science as the basis for their pedagogical content knowledge for effective classroom delivery. The aim of the study was to find out in-service teachers’ views on the nature of science (NOS) and how their views compared with informed understanding of the NOS. The study adopted an exploratory case study methodology, qualitative in nature, and used convenience sampling. A questionnaire was administered to 50 in-service teachers doing a bachelor of science honours degree at a selected university in Zimbabwe. The students had done a course in history and philosophy of science where there were exposed to some topics on the NOS. Frequency counts and mean scores were used to describe views of the participants. Analysis involved comparing in-service teachers’ responses with experts’ views. The findings reveal that the students had a naïve understanding of NOS in 5 out of 16 statements from the administered questionnaire. Despite these observations the participants generally had a fair understanding of the NOS as evidenced by the fact that the participants managed to correctly respond to 69% of the questions asked. As such we infer that teaching and learning of nature of science as part of history and philosophy of science had a positive impact on in-service teachers’ views. The few instances when participants’ responses revealed contradictions, suggest that teaching and learning history and philosophy of science may not be adequate to develop a full understanding of nature of science. Further research is recommended with large samples, using a revised Views Of Nature of Science (VNOS) questionnaire and interviews, and document analysis to reveal how nature of science is taught and learnt.

Open access

Mumuni Baba Yidana

Abstract

The study examined differences in perception among Senior High School Economics teachers on the relative importance of indicators of teachers’ professional skills, based on teaching experience. The study employed the descriptive survey method and comprised a sample of 115 professional Economics teachers drawn from the Central Region of Ghana. A self-designed questionnaire was administered on the respondents. The data were analysed using the t-test. The findings of the study showed that highly experienced Economics teachers perceive indicators of teachers’ skills of instructional planning as more important, relative to the experienced Economics teachers. Again, the finding showed a significant difference in perception between the highly experienced and experienced Economics teachers about the relative importance of the skills of instructional assessment. The study recommends the organisation of in-service workshops for sensitisation as well as the creation of a community of learners among SHS Economics teachers for the sharing of knowledge and experiences.

Open access

Lwazi Sibanda and Mabhena Mpofu

Abstract

The study assessed factors constraining use of positive discipline practices in Mzilikazi District Secondary Schools. Qualitative approach and case study design were employed. Purposively selected participants from four secondary schools comprised four school heads; twenty members of the disciplinary committee, four school counsellors, forty prefects and four School Development Committee chairpersons. Data analysed thematically were collected using face to face semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews. Results revealed that lack of role models, ineffective communication, not rewarding positive behaviour, ineffective monitoring and inadequate financial resources constrained use of positive discipline practices in selected schools. The study concluded that factors that constrained use of positive discipline practices in schools mainly emanated from teachers, learners, parents and the members of the community. It is recommended that schools should initiate training programmes for teachers and parents to positively influence their discipline practices in enhancing use of positive discipline practices.

Open access

Osei-Tutu Jonah

Abstract

Dominant discourses on young people’s work tend to highlight the dangers associated with their work. Childhood is seen as a time for school and play and work has been tagged as unarguably incompatible with schooling depriving them enjoying their childhood and reaping the full benefits that come with their schooling. However, far from being universally negative in young people’s lives, the contribution of work particularly to their education and well-being should not be overlooked. Misleading results of policies underpinned by dominant discourses hamper the chances of some working young people to benefit from schooling and damage their chances for development. These benefits are particularly crucial to young people in difficult circumstances of poverty and impoverishment. Utilizing child-focused alongside some traditional methods, the paper gives a voice and hearing to the concerns articulated by young workers and other stakeholders. This paper attempts to highlight the creative side of their work and how some young workers are innovatively finding a balance between schooling and work. It exposes the disconnection between interventions towards young people’s educational inclusion and improves well-being vis-a-vis universalised legislations targeted at abolishing their work. The paper is expected to inform a reconsideration of the conventional thinking and global policy on young people’s work in the global south as some young people are indeed demonstrating work-school compatibility.

Open access

Joash Okello Aloo, Jack Odongo Ajowi and Peter Jairo O. Aloka

Abstract

The study investigated the influence of Teachers Performance Appraisal (TPA) policy on timeliness in the implementation of the curriculum in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya. The study adopted an Ex post facto design. Additionally, the study population consisted of 5450 teachers, 334 Principals, the TSC-County Director and 334 Deputy Principals of public secondary schools. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 179 Principals and 179 Deputy Principals. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the Principals and Deputy Principals. Document analysis guide was used to collect data which was not readily obtained through questionnaires. Reliability of the instruments for data collection was tested by assessing the scale’s internal consistency using Crobanch’s alpha and reliability coefficient of at least 0.7 was achieved in all the sub-scales of the questionnaire. Validity was determined by experts in Educational Administration. Quantitative data from questionnaires was analyzed by using inferential statistics, for instance, Linear Regression analysis and Pearson Correlation. The study established that TPA policy had a positive significant influence on; timeliness in curriculum implementation (r=.604, p<.05), curriculum evaluation by teachers (r =.726, p<.05). The TPA was established to be a significant predictor of the timelines in curriculum implementation [F (1, 316) = 181.90, p < .05]. The study recommends that TSC should enforce TPA policy and use it as a tool for promoting and deploying teachers into leadership positions. The study recommends that the Ministry of Education should guide every school to come up with syllabus coverage monitoring tool that can be administered alongside TPA.