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Open access

Olivera Lupescu, Mihail Nagea, Alina Grosu, Alexandru Dimitriu, Gheorghe Ion Popescu, Răzvan Scurtu and Nicolae-Marian Ciurea

Abstract

Distal tibial fractures usually result from high-energy trauma, affecting young, active people, producing long-term disability and numerous complications. Their treatment is difficult, especially in type C fractures, which affect both the articular surface and the metaphysis, are quite frequent comminuted fractures, and are accompanied by soft tissue injuries. In these situations, External Fixation (EF) is used as a temporary bridging method, either for treating concomitant soft tissue injuries (in open fractures) or for achieving and maintaining reduction in order to prevent blisters or compartment syndrome, possibly resulting from severe displacement, bleeding or oedema. It must be however underlined that EF is rarely a definitive method for these fractures, especially when the ankle is splinted, and it must be followed by definitive Internal Fixation (IF) - the so-called “sequential method”, otherwise restoration of a normal ankle anatomy and function is improbable, resulting in ankle stiffness or even osteoarthritis. This paper presents a case in which this principle was only partially applied, thus requiring corrective surgery followed by a long-term recovery period.

Open access

Daniela–Elena Ion

Abstract

Introduction and purpose:Charcot neuroarthropathy defines a cluster of progressive lesions affecting the joints and bones, as well as the soft tissues of the foot in the context of diabetes, a pivotal role being attributed to peripheral neuropathy. Loss of sensation and proprioception, subsequent repeated trauma, muscle and autonomic nervous system impairment contribute to the alteration of the foot’s architecture and distribution of pressure, ultimately triggering ulceration and gangrene. The urge to avoid amputation has fueled the development of conservative and reconstructive techniques capable of delaying, if not preventing such negative outcomes. The purpose of this review was to present the most frequently used reconstruction procedures and the challenges arising in adapting them to particular foot morphologies and lesion stages. Methods:Literature search was conducted using PubMed, resulting in around 90 articles, multicenter studies and reviews, 26 of which were considered most relevant in providing the guidelines for orthopedic reconstruction and postoperative care in Charcot foot patients with diabetic neuropathy prevailing over arteriopathy. Results:The tarsometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints are most frequently affected. Closed reduction, arthrodesis, and tendon lengthening are key features of an efficient correction, alternatively accompanied by resections and tenotomies. Ulceration and callus debridement may also be necessary, while prolonged casting and immobilization remain obligatory. Conclusions:Most authors agree that stabilizing the deformities, optimizing the pressure on the soft tissues, and promoting the healing of potential lesions are the main purposes of the interventions. Prompt recognition and correction of Charcot foot deformities improve life quality and minimize the prospects of amputation.

Open access

Anca Chiriac, Piotr Brzezinski, Meda Bradeanu, Adrian Năznean, Cristian Podoleanu and Simona Stolnicu

Abstract

Newborns are more likely to develop bruises due to mechanical trauma during birth. Establishing the correct diagnosis in newborns presenting with different skin lesions is not an easy task, and besides the well-known pathology, one must not forget simple posttraumatic injuries. We present three cases that raised questions before establishing that the lesions had been induced by simple mechanical trauma during birth. Trauma-induced skin lesions in newborns may represent an overlooked problem. The three cases presented here are meant to draw attention to the possibility of trauma-induced lesions in newborns, which require only close follow-up and surveillance instead of exhaustive clinical and laboratory investigations, which are inevitably accompanied by anxiety.

Open access

Bogdan Serban, Zsombor Panti, Mihai Nica, Marian Pleniceanu, Mihnea Popa, Răzvan Ene and Cătălin Cîrstoiu

Abstract

Although most soft tissue tumors are benign, with a high healing rate after surgical excision, there is a variety of malignant tumors with differences in progression and prognosis. The study aimed to assess the survival rate in patients diagnosed with this pathology, based on the patient’s characteristics (age, gender, race), as well as the tumor’s histological type, differentiation degree, location and size. The retrospective study included a group of 103 patients diagnosed during 2010 and 2017 in our department. Considering the high healing rate of benign tumors, only the group of neoplastic patients (45 cases) was involved in the survival rate estimation, assessing tumor characteristics and individual comorbidities. Within this lot, we emphasized a predominance of neoplasm in patients aged over 50 years (32 cases), men (29 cases), and localization of the neoplasm in the thigh (23 cases). The predominant histopathological type, liposarcoma, was diagnosed in 67% of the cases, with dimensions over 6 cm and with local extension. There have been significant variations in mortality between the different histological subtypes (liposarcoma vs. synovial sarcoma). Local recurrences were showed in 18 cases of liposarcoma in the first 2 years after the surgical excision, with an increased aggressiveness of this neoplasm in men over 50 years. 12 cases developed distant metastasis, and until the end of the study, 7 deaths were reported in 3 cases involving associated comorbidities. The five-year survival is inversely proportional to the extent of the tumor and the local invasion, as well as to the age of the patient. An overall survival rate is difficult to appreciate in the context of a heterogeneous group of tumors so it must be evaluated for every histological subtype taking into account the patient’s particularities.

Open access

Balázs Oltean-Péter, István Kovács, Monica Chițu and Imre Benedek

Abstract

Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that most often affects the carotid arteries. Being usually asymptomatic in its early stages, it is diagnosed only in advanced stages, when treatment is more difficult and prognosis is poor. Carotid ultrasound (US) is the most commonly used method for diagnosing carotid artery disease and represents a proper method for screening in patients with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. This paper shows the methodology and necessity of carotid imaging methods in patients at high risk of developing atherosclerotic lesions. We also review the findings that underline the need of carotid screening in patients with ischemic heart disease or with ischemic arteriopathy, showing that the carotid arteries are like ‘mirrors’ of the arterial system, which need to be assessed in every patient with CV risk factors, regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms.

Open access

Mihai Gherman, Anca-Mădălina Sere, Mihai-Daniel Angheluță and Remus Coste

Abstract

Knee osteoarthritis (gonarthrosis) is the most prevalent knee pathology encountered nowadays in the third age population, leading to severe disability and reduced life quality. Secondary gonarthrosis may be caused by a traumatic event, which subjects the knee joint to a transitory highly increased mechanical stress, initiating a rapidly progressive degrading process of the articular cartilage and subjacent bone tissue. TKA is intended to replace all the intra-articular components with artificial parts, in order to relieve pain, compensate for ligament instability, correct deformities, and restore proper joint functionality. Semi-constrained, non-hinged implants are usually used for revision TKA, in knees that already had a primary TKA but sustained complications. Nevertheless, here we reported the case of a 66-year-old female patient diagnosed with posttraumatic gonarthrosis who underwent TKA with a revision total stabilizer implant as primary treatment due to severe joint instability and high grade valgus deviation. The outcome of the surgical procedure was positive, with significant pain relief and increased knee stability. The valgus angle was reduced from 37° to 4° and the KSS score increased from 3 to 87 points. Therefore, revision semi-constrained prosthesis may be used as a primary implant with promising result in severe cases.

Open access

Osama Al-Odat, Mahmoud Mousa Odat, Ștefana Luca, Mădălina Fotea, Andrei Nicolae Avadanei and Mateusz Zarzecki

Abstract

Purpose. Damage Control Orthopedics (DCO) is a surgical concept used in the recovery of seriously injured patients. Given that the leading cause of death among trauma patients remains uncontrolled hemorrhage, DCO emphasizes on preventing the "lethal triad” of acidosis, coagulopathy and hypothermia, rather than correcting the anatomy immediately. Thereby, we are presenting the crucial importance of using this technique in severe trauma cases. Methods. A 23-year-old female was admitted in the Emergency Room as a multi-trauma patient. Following the Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol, fully exposure examination showed bilateral forearm and femur deformities, with bilateral open femur fracture, left ankle deformity and pelvic ecchymosis. X-rays confirmed fractures of the ribs, bilateral pulmonary contusion, fracture of the left ankle fracture, bilateral superior and inferior pubic ramus, and bilateral femur fractures with both bone midshaft fracture on the right leg. DCO was proceeded immediately, during which external fixators were placed on the fractures, while splinting both forearms. After 11 days in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), the patient underwent the definitive surgeries. Results. Managing the patient with the DCO protocol first and not rushing with the definitive surgical procedures resulted in a proper stabilization. After two years follow up, the patient fully recovered and returned to a normal life style. Conclusion. Performing a definitive operation on severely injured patients results in deleterious effects that could lower life expectancy. Short-term physiological recovery should be prioritized over definitive management and DCO should be proceeded in order for the best outcomes to be achieved.

Open access

Mihai-Daniel Angheluta, Mihai Gherman, Anca Madalina Sere and Remus Coste

Abstract

In the context of an ever-increasing elderly population, we attempted to trace the portrait of the typical orthopedic patient of the future. We presented the case of a 92-year-old woman who presented with a midshaft femoral fracture and a rich medical and surgical history. We reported the management, treatment, and evolution while touching upon the economic side of orthopedic surgery.

Open access

Bogdan Cretu, Zsombor Panti, Mihai Nica, Bogdan Serban, Mihnea Popa, Răzvan Ene and Cătălin Cîrstoiu

Abstract

As the population becomes more active and life expectancy increases, gonarthrosis has proportions of epidemics. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an intervention that decreases pain and gives the patients the possibility of quickly returning to the desired level of activity. It is an intervention with a patient satisfaction rate of about 90-95% with a survival of the implant over 15 years of 90%. When dealing with TKA the following elements should be taken into account: clinical examination (walking analysis), leg deformities and knee alignment (foot deformation management), posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, cavovarus foot, posttraumatic deformity, neuropathic arthropathies, ankle arthrosis, foot deformities and knee arthroplasty. Ankle or foot deformity may be causes of progression of gonarthrosis or a TKA failure. Post-operative alignment of TKA is an extremely important element in the long-term survival of the prosthesis. By improving biomechanical alignment of the complete pelvic limb, TKA survival and patient satisfaction will increase.