Due to intensive irrigated rice cultivation during dry season, declining trend of groundwater level is observed in many parts of Bangladesh. Field experiments were conducted in 2015 and 2016 at four experimental stations of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Bangladesh to evaluate the performance of some Boro rice cultivars in different planting dates with respect to yield and irrigation water requirement, and to optimize between yield and irrigation water requirement, with a view to reduce groundwater withdrawal and hence reducing mining of groundwater. The transplanting dates were 21th January (T1), 15th February (T2), 7th March and 30th March. Four rice cultivars were used. The results showed that the rice growth period was shortened with the later dates of transplanting. Generally, the yield of all cultivars at first and second transplanting (i.e. in T1 & T2) are good, and decrease at the later transplanting dates (T3, T4) and hence could not be recommended among farmers. When we consider the irrigation savings in T2 compare to T1, the irrigation savings varies with location and year, but the general tendency is that the second transplanting can save irrigation water. By considering economic (intrusion of additional rabi crop between two rice crops) and ecological factor (irrigation reduction, and hence reducing groundwater withdrawal), we recommend that the most suitable transplanting time for Boro rice should be 15th February. As such, we can effectively achieve good yield, reduce irrigation requirement, and creating opportunity for possible intrusion of addition Rabi crop between two rice crops. Overall, the findings of the present study can provide effective transplanting time and cultivar to reduce groundwater withdrawal in the present agro-ecosystem of northwestern Bangladesh and other similar areas.
Alhaji Zubair Jaji, Adamu Saleh Saidu, Mohammed Bakari Mahre, Mbaya Pindar Yawulda, Ibrahim Alhaji Girgiri, Piyush Tomar and Faruk Dau
Prenatal gross morphologic, morphometric and histologic developmental features of the dromedary spleen were studied. The dromedary gestation period (13 months) was categorized into four (1-4) phases and ten developing spleens per growth phase were sampled. Splenic topographical anatomy was noted before being eviscerated from each foetus. Morphologic and morphometric features of the eviscerated spleens were immediately documented and 2 – 4 mm thick samples were collected for histological analysis. The developing spleen was dark brown in colour, semilunar shaped and significantly increased (p<0.05) in size and weight across the four phases of prenatal development. The full-term dromedary spleen was observed to have unique histological features. Its capsule had an inner smooth muscle and an outer predominant connective tissue layer. The pumping of stored blood from the muscular capsule and trabeculae was proportionate to the body’s requirement. The splenic venous return was characterized by blood flow from the red pulp (venous sinusoids) to the peritrabecular sinuses, subcapsular sinuses and finally to the splenic veins. The dromedary has a sinusal type of spleen and has both open and closed types of circulation. The presence of closed circulation and absence of marginal sinus could be the reason for dromedary main health problems of blood parasites; Trypanosoma evansi. It was concluded that most of the salient features of the postnatal spleen were already evident in the first growth phase and became developed by the second phase. Other growth phases were mainly characterized by increase in sizes.
Somchit Eiam-Ong, Mookda Chaipipat, Krissanapong Manotham and Somchai Eiam-Ong
Objectives. Aldosterone rapidly enhances protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and beta1 proteins in the rat kidney. The G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30)-mediated PKC pathway is involved in the inhibition of the potassium channel in HEK-239 cells. GPR30 mediates rapid actions of aldosterone in vitro. There are no reports available regarding the aldosterone action on other PKC isoforms and GPR30 proteins in vivo. The aim of the present study was to examine rapid actions of aldosterone on protein levels of phosphorylated PKC (p-PKC) delta, p-PKC epsilon, and GPR30 simultaneously in the rat kidney.
Methods. Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline solution or aldosterone (150 µg/kg body weight). After 30 minutes, abundance and immunoreactivity of p-PKC delta, p-PKC epsilon, and GPR30 were determined by Western blot analysis and immunohisto-chemistry, respectively.
Results. Aldosterone administration significantly increased the renal protein abundance of p-PKC delta by 80% (p<0.01) and decreased p-PKC epsilon protein by 50% (p<0.05). Aldosterone injection enhanced protein immunoreactivity of p-PKC delta but suppressed p-PKC epsilon protein intensity in both kidney cortex and medulla. Protein abundance of GPR30 was elevated by aldosterone treatment (p<0.05), whereas the immunoreactivity was obviously changed in the kidney cortex and inner medulla. Aldosterone translocated p-PKC delta and GPR30 proteins to the brush border membrane of proximal convoluted tubules.
Conclusions. This is the first in vivo study simultaneously demonstrating that aldosterone administration rapidly elevates protein abundance of p-PKC delta and GPR30, while p-PKC epsilon protein is suppressed in rat kidney. The stimulation of p-PKC delta protein levels by aldosterone may be involved in the activation of GPR30.
Objective. While dulaglutide has been approved inpatients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in combination with insulin, it has not been studied in insulin-deficient patients, not whether they have type 1 diabetes (T1DM) or T2DM. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide 0.75 mg/once weekly (QW) in patients with absolute insulin deficiency (n=10).
Subjects and Results. Significant reductions of HbA1c (9.30±1.03% to 8.61±1.21%; p<0.02) and body mass index (BMI; 23.61±3.95 to 23.41±4.24; p<0.02) levels were observed at 3 months with the addition of dulaglutide to the existing pharmacotherapy. However, in all the patients, post-meal C-peptide levels remained undetectable. One patient had gastrointestinal adverse events and discontinue dulaglutide within the first month. One patient was a non-responder, who had little if any changes in HbA1c levels at 3 months.
Conclusions. The results indicate that dulaglutide is effective in patients with T1DM or T2DM with absolute insulin deficiency, though gastrointestinal adverse events might be of concern. The improvements in glycemic control could not be due to enhanced insulin secretion, but may be as a result of a combination of the other effects of glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1), such as postprandial glucagon suppression, delayed gastric emptying, and weight loss.
Tolulope Oyesola, Bolanle Iranloye and Olufeyi Adegoke
Objective. This study was designed to investigate the effect of sublethal doses (10, 60, and 120 mg/kg of pirimiphos-methyl on implantation and pregnancy in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Pirimiphos-methyl is a pesticide widely used worldwide, especially in Africa to protect food against pests and has gained widespread acceptance.
Methods. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats used for this study had access to food and water ad libitum and were divided into a control group and three experimental groups based on dose of chemical given. The pregnant rats were given pirimiphos-methyl orally on days 1–5, 1–7, 7–18th day of gestation and from day 1 to term. Implantation studies were carried out on days 6 and 8 of pregnancy, while the fetal parameters were ascertained on day 19 of pregnancy and at term. Serum levels of progesterone and estradiol were measured on days 6, 8 and 19 of pregnancy.
Results. Sublethal administration of pirimiphos-methyl showed decreased number of implantation sites on days 6 and 8, fetal weight, crown-to-rump length, length of umbilical cord and placenta weight (day 19), birth weight, litter size and total number (at term) in rats administered with pirimiphos-methyl when compared with control.
Conclusion. Administration of pirimiphos-methyl resulted in a reduced implantation rate due to decreased uterine receptivity caused by an imbalance in the level of estradiol and progesterone and impaired reproductive outcome during pregnancy.
Frederick-Anthony Farrugia and Anestis Charalampopoulos
Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors originating in the adrenal medulla. They may be sporadic or in the context of a hereditary syndrome. A considerable number of pheochromocytomas carry germline or somatic gene mutations, which are inherited in the autosomal dominant way. All patients should undergo genetic testing. Symptoms are due to catecholamines over production or to a mass effect. Diagnosis is confirmed by raised plasma or urine metanephrines or normetanephrines. Radiology assists in the tumor location and any local invasion or metastasis. All the patients should have preoperative preparation with α-blockers and/or other medications to control hypertension, arrhythmia, and volume expansion. Surgery is the definitive treatment. Follow up should be life-long.
Paulina Pidikova, Pavel Svitok and Iveta Herichova
Objective. Epidemiological studies confirm that hypertensive patients respond differently to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibition depending on their gender. The aim of present work is to focus on sex-dependent differences in RAS regulation under conditions of increased salt intake.
Method. To investigate RAS, we measured the expression of angiotensinogen (Agt) mRNA, angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1) mRNA and mitochondria assembly receptor (MasR) in the liver of rats under control conditions and after feeding with a salt diet (2% NaCl). In parallel, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) mRNA was analyzed.
Results. Regression analysis revealed sex-dependent differences in the correlation between mRNA expression of AT1 and that of Agt, MasR and VEGF-A in both groups. There was a significant negative correlation between AT1 and Agt mRNA expression in the male control group, but this correlation disappeared in males exposed to a salt diet. In females, AT1 and Agt expression correlated only in the group exposed to the salt diet. In control males, there was a borderline trend to correlation between AT1 and MasR mRNA expression. The correlation between AT1 and VEGF-A mRNA expression was significant only in the control females, however, after exposure to a salt diet, this correlation diminished.
Conclusions. We hypothesize that RAS components expression is compensated differently in males and females. The observed loss of compensatory relationships in RAS between AT1 and Agt and AT1 and MasR in male rats under a salt diet can contribute to the differences observed in human with hypertension associated with an unhealthy diet.
Objective. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the spatial relationship between the c-Fos immunoreactive cells elicited by an acute treatment with neuroleptics including amisulpride (AMI), olanzapine (OLA), quetiapine (QUE), and aripiprazole (ARI) and enkephalinergic (ENK), substance P (SP), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) innervation fields in the rat septum.
Methods. Male Sprague Dawley rats received a single injection of OLA (5 mg), ARI (10 mg), AMI (20 mg), QUE (15 mg/kg/b.w.). Ninety min after antipsychotics administration, the animals were transcardially perfused with a fixative and the brains cryocut into serial coronal sections of 35 µm thickness. The sections were processed for c-Fos staining using an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and visualized by nickel intensified diaminobenzidine to reach black endproduct. Afterwards, the sections were exposed to ENK, SP, and TH antibodies and the reaction product visualized by biotin-labeled fluorescent AlexaFluor 564 dye. The data were evaluated from the sections either simultaneously illuminated with fluorescent and transmission microscope beams or after merging the separately illuminated sections in the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software.
Results. ENK, SP, and TH displayed characteristic spatial images formed by a dense accumulation of immunoreactive fibers and terminals on the both sides of the septum. A dense plexus of axons formed by ENK and SP immunopositive terminals were situated predominantly in the lateral, while TH ones more medial portion of the septum. QUE and AMI activated distinct amount of c-Fos expression in cells located within the SP-immunoreactive principal innervation field. The OLA effect on the c-Fos expression was very pronounced in the ventral TH-labeled principal innervation field including the space between the ENK field ventral portion and the dorsal margin of the accumbens nucleus shell. Generally, the occurrence of c-Fos cells in the ENK-immunoreactive principal innervation field, in comparison with the surrounding septal area, was less abundant after all of the four antipsychotics treatments.
Conclusion. The data of the present study indicate that ENK, SP, and TH innervation fields may influence separate populations of septal cells activated by AMI, OLA, QUE, and ARI and that each of these region-differently innervated cells may be associated with the functional heterogeneity of the individual lateral septal nuclei.
Mohammad Javad Hoseinpour, Alireza Ghanbari, Nahid Azad, Ali Zare, Shabnam Abdi, Ensieh Sajadi, Hojjat-Allah Abbaszadeh, Reza Mastery Farahani and Mohammad-Amin Abdollahifar
Objective. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and multifactorial disease associated with female factor infertility. Ulmus minor bark (UMB) is one of the medicinal plants used in Persian folklore as a fertility enhancer. In the current study, we aimed to elucidate the effect of UMB hydro-alcoholic extract on histological parameters and testosterone condition in an experimental model of PCOS rats.
Methods. Thirty female rats were randomly divided into five groups: (1) control, (2) vehicle, (3) PCOS/50 mg [6 mg/kg dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) + 50 mg/kg UMB hydro-alcoholic extract], (4) PCOS/150 mg (6 mg/kg DHEA + 150 mg/kg UMB hydro-alcoholic extract), and (5) PCOS (6 mg/kg DHEA). All interventions were performed for 21 days. Afterwards, stereological analysis was done for determination of ovarian volume and follicle number. The serum level of testosterone was measured by ELISA kit.
Results. UMB hydro-alcoholic extract improved the total number of the corpus luteum in the treatment groups when compared to the PCOS group (p<0.05). PCOS/150 mg and PCOS/50 mg groups showed significantly lower total number of the primordial, primary, and secondary follicles as well as testosterone level compared to the PCOS group (p<0.05). The total number of antral follicles and volume of ovary did not differ significantly between groups.
Conclusion. UMB extract may be an effective and good alternative in improving PCOS histo-logical and testosterone disturbances although further studies are warranted to confirm the safety of UMB plant in human.