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Purpose: The aim of the paper is to overview the research on inequalities in economics. The paper is based on mainstream and heterodox economic theories and approaches addressing inequality and its economic interdependence.

Methodology: Due to its positive and normative nature, inequality is a complex concept that eludes precise definition. The available application of mainstream and heterodox approach to study inequality and its economic interdependence allows for the identification of various components of inequality. Classifications that fall within the mainstream economics especially reveal less numerous and often even different types of inequalities compared to heterodox approaches. Moreover, what determines within-country inequality is the number of driving forces related to the factual and regulatory sphere of an economy.

Findings: This study does not exhaust the general debate over inequality in economics. The question remains about the state of research dedicated to the outcomes of inequality, for instance, perceived in its dynamic and historical perspective. Moreover, there emerges a need to overview the theoretical and empirical research dedicated to inequality in terms of not only its driving forces but also economic outcomes.


Purpose: The article discusses the pace of internationalization by empirically verifying the speed of internationalization of Polish international firms and identifying which pattern is more frequently used by international startups from Poland: born global or born regional.

Methodology: The article employs a quantitative approach. It builds on a sample of 355 international businesses from Poland (CATI survey).

Findings: By using t test, U test, and ANOVA, the analysis showed a correlation between the company’s international strategy as a planning instrument and the speed and scope of internationalization.

Research limitations/implications: Based on prior studies from other parts of the globe, we assume that among Polish companies the number of born regionals – i.e. businesses that are international from their inception – is growing, while their activity is mainly restricted to the European Union. Among Polish international firms, there are many born global. In the studied sample (selected randomly), the share of born globals was 61.5%, and global startups 43%, which is a very high rate. The results enable to adopt a hypothesis that the number of Polish-born regionals is relatively high in comparison with the traditional path and born globals.

Originality/value: The article describes one of the first studies to (i) capture the phenomenon of born regionals in Poland and (ii) enrich empirical studies on emerging markets such as Poland.


Purpose: The three goals of the article are: first, to show some arguments surrounding the notion of capitalism in theoretical perspective, and also somewhat bashful connotations since it was introduced in Poland after the fall of communism; second, to present some historical facts about the rise of capitalism in Poland in comparative perspective, mostly European; third, to look for cultural categories necessary for analysing the peculiarities of Polish socio-economic development as the part of so-called „the second Europe”.

Methodology: I go back to the history of European patterns of capitalist formation: Anglo-Saxon, French, German, Russian in order to show the Polish trajectory as strikingly different. Before entering the Polish case, I present Mary Douglas and Aaron Widavsky’s proposal – how to analyze four cultures: individualist, egalitarian, hierarchical and fatalistic (authoritarian).

Implications: The main finding is that economic interests are always socio-cultural constructions, hence all definitions of the real life decisions (on public vs private, risk, externalities etc.) that the people make, must frame them within working life of given culture as the combination of universalism and particularism (of above-mentioned four cultures).


Purpose: The aim of this article is to present the results of the research on the export of venture capi tal backed firms in the European Union countries.

Methodology: For the purpose of this article, the author created four linear regression models. He decided for export revenue to be a dependent variable. Then, the author verified the influence of four independent variables on export value.

Findings: The research found that the turnover of venture capital backed firms positively influences their export value. Moreover, the costs of employees also play an important role in export value explanation. Nevertheless, the empirical study did not confirm any strong positive correlation of analyzed firms’ export value with the number of employees and their share of shareholders’ funds in operating income.

Limitations: The analyzed period was limited only to 2016. Second, the study used only one dependent and four independent variables. Further research must include other variables, especially moderating ones, such as entrepreneurship ratio or availability of external financing forms. Third, the regression models were based on data retrieved from Orbis Database and can induce uncertainty regarding its credibility.

Originality: At present, there are still only few research studies that explore the export of venture capital backed firms.


Purpose: This research explores the application of Aaker’s brand personality scale on human brands in surf sports. It investigates the potential for detecting differences in the brand personality profile used on human brands. Aaker (1997) developed a brand personality framework consisting out of five dimensions of brand personality and fifteen brand personality attributes. This framework has been used in several studies; however, it has been criticized by researchers for its lack of applicability as a general scale. This paper addresses this issue by testing all forty-two original brand personality attributes, used by Aaker, on professional surfers as human brands. A second objective was to establish an ultra-short scale for practical reasons since brand personality is often only one of several measures in a questionnaire.

Methodology: In order to determine what attributes were the most appropriate when describing a professional surfer, a web survey with a 7-point Likert scale was conducted, which resulted in a convenience sample of n=219 respondents. In this study, the author conducted principle factor analysis and compared the results of an oblique rotation with Aaker’s results in order to investigate whether Aaker’s brand personality scale provides similar results on human brands as it does on product brands.

Findings: This paper concludes that partially different facets than Aaker’s (1997) brand personality framework apply to human brands in the surf context. The more appropriate facets for human brands in the surf context include: real, wholesome, good-looking, secure, Western, and up-to-date.

Research limitations/Implications: Further research on specific athletes in different contexts is needed. It could incorporate other brand personality scales e.g. Geuens et al. (2009), Braunstein and Ross (2010) and Tsiotsou (2012) scales.

Practical Implications: The findings of this study are useful for sports marketers to better understand athletes as human brands as well as their facets, in order to develop target positioning with specific marketing strategies.



Purpose: This article seeks to identify the similarities and differences in the narratives of corporate histories published in different periods of time.

Methodology: This study is based on a comparative content analysis of corporate histories of three pharmaceutical plants operating under the “Polfa” Union of the Pharmaceutical Industry based in Poland.

Findings: Corporate histories change depending on the period in which a given history is published. The study reveals that corporate history depends on the nature of the state authority in power at a given time.

Research limitations and implications: This exploratory study concentrates on examination of four corporate histories and contributes to the research on the “uses of the past” in organization studies. Nevertheless, it has several limitations, including a limited number of companies included in the analysis and the adoption of a qualitative approach only.

Originality and value: This is the first article that focuses on a comparative content analysis of corporate histories published at different times in search of the similarities and differences in the domain of corporate narrative.


Purpose: When facing important decisions, people often ask themselves “What should I choose?” This question may involve intertemporal and risky decisions. The aim of our study was to test a potential discrepancy between the normative and descriptive perspective, that is, between “What should you choose?” and “What do you choose?”.

Methodology: In this study we assessed the rate of delay and probability discounting of 236 participants. The design was a 2 (“choose”/”should choose”) × 2 (small/large) × 5 (delays or probabilities) factorial design in delay and probability discounting.

Findings: People are less impulsive when taking the normative perspective than when they take the descriptive one. This phenomenon occurs in relation to large payoffs. However taking the normative rather than descriptive perspective makes no difference in risky decisions.

Research limitations: In further research it would be beneficial to study real outcomes as choice consequences and to control for variables that might moderate the impact of our manipulation, such as addictions.

Implications: The manipulation with the perspective may be applied not only in financial decision making. Our results may find a practical implementation to help impulsive people make more sensible decisions.

Originality: We demonstrated the internal conflict between the descriptive and normative mode in delay discounting decision making.


The purposes of this article are to present validation techniques according to their discriminatory power, while indicating the reservations about such techniques, and to check the adjustment of the existing Polish bankruptcy prediction models in the context of their discriminatory power. This is the first study that performs a validation of such models. Based on the analysis, it was found that the fifth model developed by Hadasik was characterised by avery high discriminatory power. The decision was made to base the evaluation of the discriminatory power of the modules on the Gini index, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, the H measure, the information value (IV), and the precision of the estimates of bankruptcy.


The aim of this paper is to analyse matters of truth, which is inherent issue of accounting (and therefore in reporting, as its part), which is reflected in the true and fair principle (TFV). The paper demonstrates the essence of the TFV principle and the evolution of its role and place among the set of qualitative characteristics of financial statements. After examining the changes in the development of the perception of TFV the paper makes an appraisal, gives the author’s comments and contribution by providing direct implications for regulators and the setters of standards. With respect to typical limitations regarding behavioural studies, the paper provides practical as well as social implications about understanding of the TFV concept and its effect on both the preparers and users of financial statement.