The defeat of the Polish-Lithuanian uprising in 1863–1864 was followed by a new repressive policy. Its primary objectives were to suppress any ideas of the Polish-Lithuanian state and to establish the Russian system at any cost. The Russian government tried to remove Lithuanian and Polish languages from public life, limit the influence of the Catholic Church, spread Orthodoxy, support the Russian education system and prohibit the printing of Lithuanian publications. The Catholic Church, headed by the bishop of Samogitia, Motiejus Valančius, joined the quiet opposition to the Russian Empire. Valančius organised the printing of Lithuanian books in Prussia – he established a secret organisation that smuggled books to Lithuania and distributed them there. Thanks to him, the foundations of the new Lithuanian national movement were laid. It supported the creation of national literature, the establishment of secret Lithuanian schools and the strengthening of the position of the Lithuanian language in the Church. The Lithuanian national revival opposed not only Russification efforts but also Polonisation in both ethnic and political sense. The era of book smugglers in Lithuania between 1865 and 1904 played a crucial role in the process of the formation of the modern Lithuanian nation. This is the main reason why the national movement of the Lithuanians also became a subject of political discussions in the early 20th century.
Interest in the art of lithography in Moravia already began to appear in the early 19th century. The first lithographic workshops in Moravia were established as late as in 1824, when one was founded by Johann Baptista and Adolph Trassler as well as Johann Gastl at their printing works in Brno. Both the Trasslers and Gastl considered it to be an opportunity to expand the offer of their printing works and primarily became specialised in the printing of ephemera. Their lithographic production was thus tied to commercial art and book and magazine production rather than to independent artistic production.
The article studies the set of 27 original letters deposited in the Documentation Collection – Cultural-Historical Archives of the State District Archives of Jindřichův Hradec. This collection contains documents of non-official provenance concerning, among other topics, also remarkable figures of the town. A leading position among them is assumed by the Landfras family, whose members were not only owners of a prosperous printing works, but also patriots, leaders of the town, and supporters of education, societies and culture. The letters provide an insight into the private lives of the members of the Landfras family, in particular its most significant member, Alois Landfras, and people connected with the family. The article deals with an overall comparison of the letters. It studies references to them and to events in their family, and connections with their life in Jindřichův Hradec. It adds some less known information on the studies of Alois Landfras at the university in Prague, providing an insight into his inner world. The article is complemented by a synoptic table of all letters, including the quoted persons and places.
The article provides information on two families of engravers that were involved in book illustrations in Bohemia over a hundred years beginning in the 1760s. Jan Jiří Balzer and his brothers (František, Matyáš and Řehoř) and sons (Jan Karel and Antonín Karel) significantly contributed to the development of engraving craft and graphic art in Bohemia. His international business activities in the area of graphic arts are known. After the death of Jan Balzer, the engraving and printing workshop was managed by his wife Kateřina and the mentioned brother Řehoř. At the beginning of the 19th century, Balzer’s daughter married an engraver in Balzer’s workshop, Karel Rybička. Their son Josef, thus a grandson of Jan Balzer, subsequently became a significant steel engraver. Both families, of Balzer and Rybička, were engaged in book illustration. This work discusses their illustrations, realised fully by or in cooperation with publishing houses in various towns of the Austrian monarchy other than Prague as well as outside the monarchy. The graphs in the article show the frequency of these illustration activities in dependence on time for the families of both Balzer and Rybička (whose father could have been involved in the steel-engraving illustrations as well).
Illustrations of the calendar part are the basic illustration in book calendars. They were placed on the twelve pages of the calendar part above the list of the days of the month. In some cases, especially in calendars from the beginning of the 19th century and Jewish calendars, these were even the only illustrations. The themes of these illustrations are considerably varied regardless of the focus of the calendars. Most frequently, they show the work done in specific months, popular pastime activities, but also signs of the zodiac, vedute, as well as scenes from the Bible and from Czech history.
The beginning of the article briefly outlines the history of Jindřichův Hradec from its foundation through its development in the 15th century and especially in the 16th century, until the 19th century, when the Landfras printing works functioned in the town. Afterwards, the article focuses on the Landfras family of printers and its work in Jindřichův Hradec. It deals with the founder of the printing works, Josef Jan Landfras (1869–1840), as well as with his family background and his public activities. Most attention is devoted to his successor, Alois Landfras (1797–1875), who became one of the most remarkable figures in the history of Jindřichův Hradec, because he was very actively involved in social events in the town. From 1841, he was a member of the town council; ten years later, he was elected mayor and remained in the position for ten years. His private and family life is marginally mentioned as well. The last member of the family active in the 19th century was Vilém Antonín Landfras (1830–1902), who was also a member of the town council. Thanks to him, the weekly Ohlas od Nežárky [Echoes from the River Nežárka] began to be published in the town in 1871. The article further mentions his important role in the organisation of the social entertainment of burghers and his family life. The end of the paper is devoted to his son, Vilém Bohumil Landfras (1865–1931), whose work falls into the first third of the 20th century.
The article deals with the role of illustrations in pictorial magazines in the second half of the 19th century (Světozor, Zlatá Praha, Květy etc.) and with changes in the image–text relationship. It focuses both on documentary and reportage drawings, which formed a significant part of magazine pictures, and on a magazine presentation of reproductions of works of art and the character of their accompanying commentaries. A closer inspection reveals that, despite the apparent dominance of the visual part, magazines still saw their crucial role in the textual part – which concerned not only the published articles but also the presentation of reproductions. The variation in the interaction between the image and the text is one of the most interesting methods of communication between illustrated magazines and their readers. On specific examples, the article illustrates how magazines worked with their pictorial part in connection with the reproduction techniques available and what meaning and content the reproductions could acquire in relation to the text.
In the wide range of printed books on religious topics, a specific role was played by printed pilgrimage items, whose main aim was to increase the prestige and fame of pilgrimage sites and to strengthen the promotion of worshipped cults among believers. This was also the case of the pilgrimage site of Mariazell in Styria, Austria, where believers from virtually all parts of the Habsburg Monarchy, thus also pilgrims from the Czech lands, travelled in the 18th and 19th centuries. Especially broadside-ballad production and pilgrimage books significantly developed the tradition of religious pilgrimages. Pilgrimage songs, which were published in pilgrimage books intended for pilgrims heading to Mariazell, found a response in broadside-ballad production and in many cases also became part of the song repertoire of pilgrim cults in the Czech lands.
The aim of the article is to outline the activities of the Czech journalist, publisher and important representative of Czech national-economic thought in the 19th century, František Šimáček. Particular attention is focused on the operation of Šimáček’s business. Through his own company, Šimáček implemented his national-economic ideas as the essence of Czech national emancipation. In his publishing programme, he emphasised the quality of the books prepared for publication (with abundant illustrations and decorative publisher’s binding) in order to gain recognition for Czech books even in the highest social classes. As an employer and journalist, he acted as a classical liberal influenced by the pioneering ideas of Vojta Náprstek, whom he often met privately as well. He became a remarkable figure of Czech national life not only in Prague. He deliberately supported it through the distribution of the printed word, both as a radical journalist, which brought him police execution and large financial losses, and as a publisher or the owner of the printing works that offered not only the production of the publishing house but also a wide range of printed materials especially for Czech savings banks.