Nicoleta Dumitrescu and Codrut Sarafoleanu
BACKGROUND. Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy (DISE) is a sleep apnea diagnostic procedure which allows direct view the obstruction while inducing sleep using analgosedation with propofol. Many studies highlighted the importance of DISE in finding the level of obstruction and choosing the specific treatment.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed DISE under propofol sedation in 27 patients diagnosed with sleep apnea who addressed to our clinic for further investigation and treatment. We assessed the obstruction type and severity using the Fujita scale, VOTE (velum, oropharynx, tongue base, epiglottis) and NOHL (nose, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx). Finally, we correlated the DISE findings with the polysomnographic results.
RESULTS. We observed significant correlations between the obstruction severity seen at DISE and the polysomnographic results. Further, we could decide the appropriate treatment for our patients, whether surgical or not (continuous positive airway pressure - CPAP).
CONCLUSION. Sleep endoscopy represents a very important method in establishing the topographic diagnostic of sleep apnea patients, being useful for the therapeutic decision and the postoperative assessment. We recommend drug-induced sleep endoscopy as elective investigation regarding the diagnostic and treatment of sleep apnea patients.
Florin-Dan Popescu and Mariana Vieru
Clinical entities of food allergy in allergic rhinitis patients due to IgE-sensitization to cross-reactive aeroallergen and food allergen components are well described, but less data are available regarding allergic reactions to foods containing aeroallergens, either due to food contamination, such as oral mite anaphylaxis, or due to their natural presence in the edible products, such as pollen grains in honey and bee products. There are some potential risks for allergic rhinitis subjects due to ingestion of food products containing domestic mite, insect, fungal and pollen allergens. The knowledge of these risks is useful for the allergists and ENT specialists, especially in the context of climate changes with warmer periods facilitating mite growth in flours, and of increase use of phytotherapy and apitherapy products containing pollen grains.
Daniela Vrinceanu, Mihai Dumitru, Ioana Eftime, Madalina Ilie, Adrian Stefan, Bogdan Banica, Daniel Mihai Teleanu and Alina Popa-Cherecheanu
BACKGROUND. Odontogenic rhinosinusal suppurations have a high potential for major ocular-orbital and cerebral complications because of the presence of anaerobic bacteria flora, with continuity, contiguity and haematogenous propagation mechanisms. This pathology is often diagnosed in other departments than ENT such as ophthalmology, neurosurgery or OMF surgery.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We present three clinical cases of odontogenic rhinosinusal suppurations with major complications: a 36-year-old patient with odontogenic pansinusitis complicated with orbital phlegmon and cerebral frontal lobe abscess; a 19-year-old patient with complicated maxillary-ethmoidal-frontal sinusitis complicated with frontal subdural empyema and frontal bone osteomyelitis (with a history of craniofacial trauma one year before); a 66-year-old patient with odontogenic maxillary-ethmoidal sinusitis complicated with orbital apex syndrome.
RESULTS. The treatment was surgical, by external approach, with endoscopic nasal control, in interdisciplinary teams. We have associated massive antibiotic therapy. Surgical drainage for complicated rhinosinusitis should be done in emergency, within the first 24 hours after admission, according to guidelines. The bacteriological examination for aerobic and anaerobic flora can guide the diagnosis - two cases associated maxillo-ethmoidal aspergilloma lesions. The evolution of the cases was favourable.
CONCLUSION. Interdisciplinary teams have successfully solved these complicated odontogenic rhinosinusal suppurations. Two of the cases were admitted and cured within 2 weeks, in the context of very hot weather, which exacerbated dormant dental infections.
Luisa Maria Bellussi, Desiderio Passali, Emanuela Vesperini, Serena Cocca, Giulio Cesare Passali, Albera Roberto, Pasquale Cassano, Domenico Rosario Cuda, Michele De Benedetto, Gaetano Motta, Giuseppe Panetti, Marco Piemonte, Lorenzo Salerni, Felice Scasso and Giancarlo Vesperini
BACKGROUND. Bacteriocins are peptides with antimicrobial efficacy produced by certain bacterial species. Probiotics indeed seem a promising method in the prevention of upper respiratory infections and our study would like to contribute to the results available in the literature, in order to underlie their true therapeutic potential role.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. Our multicenter pilot prospective study investigates 366 patients from September 2015 to February 2016. All the patients were treated with a topical device made up of a suspension of two specific bacterial strains: Streptococcus salivarius 24SMB and Streptococcus oralis 89a to be administered as nasal spray. The nasal spray was administered twice daily for 7 days per month for three consecutive months. A questionnaire about the subjective efficacy of the therapy correlated to an improvement of symptoms was also collected from patients.
RESULTS. After one year from the enrolment, a 70.07% reduction in the number of events compared with the number of expected episodes was observed.
CONCLUSION. The aim of our data is to propose a new therapeutic approach to treat the recurrence of upper airway infection and to support an adequate therapy in all cases where the traditional antibiotic therapeutic protocol did not obtain completely efficient results in terms of recurrence.
Alexis Vuzitas and Claudiu Manea
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare benign tumour of vascular origin found in adolescent males, originating around the sphenopalatine foramen. Although the exact pathogenesis of the tumour is not yet known, natural history and growth patterns can be predicted. JNA progressively involves the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal fossa and, in severe cases, an orbital or intracranial extension can be seen. Early diagnosis based on clinical examination and imaging is mandatory to ensure the best resectability of the tumour, as small to moderate tumours can be managed exclusively endoscopically. Preoperative angiography can reveal the vascular sources and allow embolization to prevent significant bleeding. We present a brief literature review followed by our case series of endoscopic removal of 7 juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas.
Mohammed Khalid Alruzayhi, Muath Salman Almuhaini, Akrm Ibrahem Alwassel and Osama Mansour Alateeq
The current study aims to investigate the effect of smartphone usage on the upper extremity performance among Saudi youth. A goniometer to measure the Range of Motion (ROM), the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS), McGill Pain scale and Chattanooga stabilizer were used to perform the current study on a sample of 300 university students from Al-Imam Mohammed Bin Saud University. The results have shown that smartphone addiction is negatively correlated to the elbow flexion, shoulder flexion, shoulder extension, shoulder abduction, shoulder adduction, and both shoulder internal and external rotation. Furthermore, the results have shown that McGill pain scores were positively correlated to elbow flexion, shoulder flexion, shoulder extension, shoulder abduction, shoulder adduction, and both shoulder internal and external rotation. The study has concluded that smartphone usage among Saudi youth negatively affects the upper extremity and causes a significant increase in the pain intensity. The study has recommended that there is an urgent need for a significant awareness campaign to warn the community regarding the impact of using smartphones for long periods of time.
Gabriela-Violeta Melinte and Codrut Sarafoleanu
Head trauma is considered to be the third cause of olfactory function disorders. Olfactometric assessment in patients accusing anosmia following head injury produced by car accident or aggression is important, because most of them are involved in law trials in order to obtain financial compensations from the author. It is compulsory to use both subjective and objective olfactory evaluation methods combined with a detailed anamnesis, a complete ENT examination and a good cranio-facial imaging (computed tomography or MRI) in order to exclude malingerers and to obtain an accurate diagnosis.
“Sfanta Maria” ENT Department from Bucharest is the only center in Romania where the olfactory function in completely investigated. We use chemosensory (Snap and Sniff Test and n-Butanol Dynamic Olfactometry) and electrophysiological tests (electric olfactory evoked potentials of the olfactory bulb).
Unfortunately, we confront with a series of difficulties in what concerns the smell function evaluation: 1) there is scarce information in the literature regarding the olfactory electric evoked potentials; 2) the electric olfactory evoked potentials register only the electrical activity in the olfactory bulb; 3) in case of olfactory impairment medically confirmed, we cannot establish a cause-effect relationship between the disturbance and the event; 4) the most accurate electrophysiological assessment method currently available in Europe is the time-frequency analysis of chemosensory event-related potentials, but we do not dispose of the necessary equipment yet; 5) sometimes patients do not give us the informed consent for a complete olfactory evaluation.
This article reviews the pathophysiology and the clinical and imaging diagnosis of rhinosinusal inflammations.
Chronic sinusitis usually develops after an incompletely treated acute sinusitis.
Complications occur through fungal superinfection, osteomyelitis, extension of the inflammatory process in the orbit or adjacent meningoencephalic structures.
The imaging investigation is indicated as the symptoms get worse, for the elucidation of sinus contents, for establishing the therapeutic protocol, for identifying and finding solutions to solve nearby complications.
Cristina Julieta Sava, Mihai Sandulescu and Rusu Mugurel Cconstantin
Sinoliths are rarely found calculi of paranasal sinuses. The most rarely they were found in the sphenoidal sinuses. At a routine Cone Beam CT exam of a 52-year-old male patient clinically silent small sinoliths were found bilaterally in the sphenoidal sinuses and a larger posterior ethmoidal sinolith was found on the right side. To our knowledge, such multiple sinuses involvement has not been previously reported.