The two-part article Time in Film (Part I Cinematograph and Modernity . Part II Trans- formation of Cinematograph into Cinema) is a kind of survey, with the author's comment, of the most important philosophical and film-studies conceptions which investigate this subject. Film time is examined in two principal aspects: as time arising from the possibility of recording reality by the camera and transforming it (reality) into moving pictures (the film-reality relation), and as time connected with a film's narrative capabilities (the film-spectator relation). The discussion on this subject is accompanied by a belief in the rich and surprising possibilities of transforming time by man (the creator and the specta-tor), which film affords. This determines the mental qualities of film time, which should be examined in close relationship to human temporality.
The essential subject of Part I (Cinematograph and Modernity') of the article presented in this volume is the mysterious character of the film recording of time which stems from the dialectics of continuity and discontinuity. The discourse begins by recalling two classic theories defining film as a temporal art: Roman Ingarden's phenomenological theory and Jan Mukarovsky's semiotic theory. Both the theories define the layered character of a film work and its temporal span, which makes the theories similar. For Ingarden, how- ever the time of a film work is first of all associated with the temporality of the perceiving subject, while Mukarovsky argues that the most significant aspect of film tune is one connected with the temporal span of the work as a sign. The two approaches stem from two different conceptions and cognitive possibilities, with which we also deal in the case of reception of a film: the possibility of direct inspection or symbolic (sign) representation.
The article then discusses the ‘ linking’' between the creation of film visibility, motion and time, as well as the mam paradox of the film recording of time. i.e. the phenomenon of creating an illusion of continuity of motion (and time) with the use of motionless pictures (movie camera and projection apparaftis). This paradox is referred, inter alia, to the philosophical conceptions advanced by Henri Bergson, who developed his own reflection on the continuity of time, motion, and specificity of human perception. Bergson's criti- cism of modern concepts of time as linear and divisible, which originated from empirical and rational tendencies of the epoch, found its reference in the possibilities provided by the mechanism of action of the cinematograph right after it was invented.
The paper then discusses expectations linked with the possibilities observ ed in the mechanical way of recording reality’ and time in the early silent cinema films (the so-called cinema of attraction). In their case, the duality of film time stemmed from the paradoxical properties provided by cinematographic reproduction and its impact on the spectator. On the one hand, it manifested a tendency to standardize and systematize phenomena and time, while on the other hand, the sphere of indeterminacy or even unawareness made itself felt. This part of die article is based on studies by Mary Ann Doane, who refers inter alia to the conceptions of Walter Benjamin. Sigmund Freud, and to Étienne-Jules Mareys photography experiments. According to M. A. Doane. the early cinema (Edison, Lumiere brothers, and Melies) was characterized by two opposing tendencies: a characteristic tendency of modernity' to record and organize the flow of present time (standardization) and at the same time a fascination with unpredictable phenomena (novelty). It was only at the next stage of cinema that temporal unpredictability- was adjusted by means of narrative patterns, which made it possible to include the viewer’s attention in the time of the plot being told.
The article presents an interpretation of two pages from a technological Renaissance manuscript by a Venetian physician and engineer. Giovanni de Fontana (1395-1455) - the treatise Bellicorum instrumentorum Liber. stored at the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich (BSB Code.icon. 242). and dated to 1420-1430. Fontana’s projects with picture- texts Castellum umbrarum [The Castle of Shadows] and Apparientia noctuma [Night Appearance] are the starting point in Europe of the history of optical projections of confabulated moving pictures. Europe had already known three techniques of production of moving (motion) pictures (apart from hypnosis, hallucinations, trance, and ecstatic visions): camera obscura. minor reflection and projection of shadows as well as the natu- ral optical phenomenon of Fata Morgana in the south of European Continent, but these produced real-time optical projections of moving pictures; they showed a copy of the really existing environment. Fontana's ideas, however, opened a prospect of realizing the concept of projection of artificially produced and recorded diapositives that could be repeatedly screened at any time as kinetic pictures. In the field of production of moving pictures this was a technological and media breakthrough, which paved the way to modern cinema and the electronic media.
The author discusses the scientific, aesthetic, esoteric, technological, psycho- and so- ciocultural as well as media-related themes of this issue. He also deals with the problem of reproduction of the communication codes used by Fontana, characteristic of his epoch but later abandoned, and tries to reinterpret his designs in their light. Moreover, he at- tempts to make a virtual reconstruction of Fontana's Castle of Shadows as a cubature object in the digital 3 D space, which makes the problem of the reception of Fontana’s ideas more intelligible. The author also examines the picture-texts in question from the spectator’s perspective and discusses the ontological aspect of the projections of phantoms of liglit and shadows.
Fontana’s designs, like other products of magnificent fifteenth-century engineering (e.g. the structure of Brunelleschi’s dome), were a kind of testimony to the competence of the human intellect. They were associated with the titles of ingegneri or ingeniatores. which shows Fontana and his contemporary constmctors-inventors as men of intellect, geniuses, and the constructors of new. smart devices. These terms are the track leading to the forgotten trend of the magnificent art of kinetic visual objects, only fragmentarily preserved until the present, in which Fontana’s contemporaries saw the reflection of the glory of human inventiveness.
Oskar Sosnowski (1880-1939) was one of the most outstanding architects active in Poland in the first half of the 20th century. He was also well-known for his artistic and scientific achievements and for his organizing work. He was the founder and Head of the Department of Polish Architecture at Warsaw Technical University’s Faculty of Architecture. His life was connected with Warsaw, where he finished school and then graduated from the Architectural and Construction Faculty at the Polytechnic Institute, started a family, and worked professionally. From 1906 he took part in architectural competi- tions. He gained successes (distinctions and awards) in competitions to design the manor house in at Opinogóra (1908). the Immaculate Conception of Holy Virgin Mary church in Grójecka street in Warsaw (1909) and the church at Orłów Murowany (1910). Sosnowski’s architectural achievements comprise over 50 items: designs and realizations, and. additionally, a series of fantasy drawings thematically related to architecture. The over- whelming majority of Sosnowski’s attainments were designs of contemporary churches. He won particular renown for the design of St. Roch church in Białystok, in which he drew from historical forms combined with a modem, reinforced concrete structure. Sosnowski designed a total of 17 churches.
One of them, still without a reliable monograph, is St. Michael the Archangel church in Lublin. Efforts to have the church built began in 1900. The Ministry of Internal Affairs issued its consent in 1906. However, first construction work began almost 30 years later. Previously, it was held back by the outbreak of World War I. disputes over the location of the church, and by the lack of sufficient funds. Meanwhile, the concept of the shape of the planned church also changed. The initial intention was that its form should resemble the appearance of Lublin’s former parish church, the Gothic St. Michael's church pulled down in 1856 because it was in ruin. Finally, a decision was made to choose the modernist church designed by Sosnowski. Its construction begun in 1930 lasted until 1946. while interior decoration works were also earned out in the subsequent years.
The St. Michael the Archangel church is a monumental brick and ferroconcrete structure. the main elements of its mass are: the bulk of the three-aisle basilica, the transept with distinctly protruding lateral arms, the presbytery as high as the central nave, and the four-sided bell tower over the intersection of the aisles. In the bulk and decorations of the St. Michael the Archangel church many historicizing elements and borrowings from Sosnowski's earlier architectural works can be distinguished. The whole should be seen as a highly successful combination of the motifs of historicizing architecture with modernity
Tlie set of music manuscripts kept at tlie Jagiellonian Library, with the catalogue number 5272. is one of the most important sources for the history of Polish music culture at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. It comprises 55 church concertos, most of which being anonymous pieces. A comparison with the seventeenth-century printed versions resulted in the identification of the authors of two compositions: Magnificemus in cantico and Tubae ferales.
The first, noted down in the manuscript of 1674. previously regarded as a work by the Polish composer Jacek Różycki (kapellmeister at the royal court since the reign of King Jan Kazimierz [John Casimir II Vasa]) is a musical piece composed by Giovanni Felice Sances (the emperor’s musician in Vienna), which he published in his authorial collection Motetti a 1, 2, 3 e 4 voci (Venice 1638). In the manuscript BJ 5272 the copyist Kazimierz Pilinski recorded this concerto with a modified bass part reduced to the tenor range, which resulted in errors or illogical solutions in the music text. It turned out that similar adaptations were used in the Exsultemus omnes, another concerto signed by Różycki, which was copied into the same manuscript and at the same time as Magnificemus in cantico.
During the studies on Różycki's music, it was ruled out that he allegedly had a middle name - Sebastian. Information was also verified about him being closely related to Stanisław Różycki, the Łęczyca deputy provincial governor (voivode).
The second work, Tubae ferales, previously regarded as a piece composed in the Commonwealth of Poland at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries, mined out to be a concerto by Giovanni Battista B a ssani, from his collection of Concerti sacri. Motetti a 1, 2, 3, e 4 voci con Violini e senza. op. 11 (Bologna 1692). This printed version was definitely well-known in Poland, as demonstrated not only by two copies of Tubae ferales kept at the Jagiellonian Library and one stored at the Diocese Library in Sandomierz but also by copies of other pieces from the Concerti sacri collection preserved among the music works fr om the repertoire of the collegiate bands in Łowicz and Grodzisk Wielkopolski.
We may expect that studies on the manuscript set no. BJ 5272. including the comparison with the content of music prints, will provide further conclusions regarding the problem of the authorship of anonymous compositions and widen the knowledge on the reception of foreign repertoire in the Commonwealth of Poland at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries.
The achievements of the eminent Polish painter Olga Boznańska (1865-1940) include very few pictures with city views - an absolute minority. Most of the city views by Boznańska are views from windows; the artist painted them less often from the pedestrian’s position. They range between two different conventions of presenting the town, which come from the early and late 19th century. The first is the German tradition, which the artist encountered and became acquainted with in Munich - one with Romantic roots m the Dresden school (inter alia in the works by Caspar David Friedrich). The second way of looking at the town was the then contemporary trend in French paining, with which Boznańska became acquainted already before she came to live permanently in Paris, defined as open air painting and developing from the late 1870s in the works by impressionists and supporters of Salons of the Independent Painters (inter alia Claude Monet, or Auguste Renoir). In her pictures of views the aitist utilized both traditions in a specific way.
Boznańska's oldest known view of Paris shows Les Invalides [Church of the Invalids] (1899); the next were: Widok Pary ża [A View of Paris] (1899), Cour de Dragon (ca. 1900). Plac Ternes [Place de Temes] (1903), another Widok Paryża [A View of Paris] (1903), Widok z okna [A View from the Window] (1903), Ulica w Paryżu [A Street m Paris] (1906) and Widok z pracowni [A View from the Studio] (1907). Paris tends to be different and ambiguous in these pictures. Not only because the artist does not always show places easy to identify: in each case, although in different ways, Boznańska emphasized the subjectivity of view. The aitist did not like the idea of unreflectively duplicating the French instructions of how to present modem metropolises. None of her known pictures today of Paris shows popular depictions with long metropolitan perspectives and a swarm of moving figures. All of them, however, use the plasticity of forms, which Boznańska was able to develop precisely in Paris - and only there. Preserving the elements of the composition of “a room with a view”, the artist showed the variability of Paris m the language of her own, delicate palette derived from postimpressionism. She told the old story about the advantage of the artist’s view over the reality, in the new language of vivid forms.
The article reconstructs the main stages of the revival in postwar Poland of interest in the music of Richard Wagner and Gustav Mahler. This process, reconstructed on the basis of music criticism sources (inter alia from the “Ruch Muzyczny” and “Tygodnik Powszechny” magazines), was connected with a more general phenomenon, which was the re-emergence of Romantic attitudes proceeding very clearly since the early 1960s. The impulses to rediscover Romanticism by Polish composers and critics (led by Bohdan Pociej) were sought, on the one hand, in them being tired of the avant-garde in music, and on the other, in the impact of the social atmosphere of the late 1960s, when, in connection with the celebration of the millennium of the Polish state and with the March 1968 events, a general demand arose for traditional values. “Value”, “sense”, “truth”, “freedom” - are the key words which define this process and at the same time they are the slogans of the then discussion about the music of Wagner and Mahler
Although Glenn Gould remains known to a large number of music lovers mainly as an eccentric performer, as frequently worshipped with idolatrous admiration as denied any talent and reason for his uncommon, original interpretations, the academic circles also see him as a brilliant thinker who left behind impressive albeit kaleidoscopic achievements. One of the most controversial issues over which discussions on Gould are still going on among the academics even today is his music technocratism. Throughout almost all his life Gould manifested his apologetic attitude to the recording technology: on the one hand, he tried bold experiments with recorded music, while on the other, he promoted radical if not iconoclastic ideas concerning the all-round and beneficial influence of the recording medium on musical culture.
In the part Praktyka [Practice] the author discusses the techniques which Gould developed in the recording studio: techniques of musical montage, sound correction, or “acoustic choreography”; he also refers to Gould’s experiments with the quadraphonic sound system, work on “counterpoint radio documentaries”, his endeavors in film, or attempts to enrich music with visual elements. In the part Teoria [Theory], the author presents Gould’s technocratic ideas closely corresponding to his accomplishments in the studio. He shows what Gould valued most highly in the recording medium, how he diagnosed the effect of recorded music on performers, composers, and the audience; he also examines where Gould saw the moral dimension of technology, and what role he ascribed to technology in music education.
Finding exceptional correspondence between practices used by Gould in the recording studio and their extensive theoretical basis, the author perceives Gould as a great musical visionary-futurist, who outlined a prophetic vision of re-creation of the musical world.