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Bukuri Dumani, Ruzhdie Bici, Nexhmi Dumani, Blerina Subashi and Alma Kondi

Abstract

Tirana, the capital of Albania, has a population of 420,000 inhabitants, with a surface area of 40 km2 and a population density of 10.5 thousand inhabitants. From the territorial point of view of the organization, Tirana has 11 administrative units. Half of the population in Tirana is less than 35 years old and half, more than 35 years old. Tirana has the highest level of socio-economic developments in the country and most of the domestic migrants who after the change of economic systems in 1990, are located in Tirana. The article analyzes the level of demographic and socio-economic developments in Tirana according to its 11 administrative units, their inequalities and similarities, with particular attention to the education of young people, the enrollment of students in secondary school after completing nine year basic education. Although Tirana has the highest socio-economic development in the country, its administrative units have quite different levels of development. The net enrollment rate at secondary school for students who have completed nine years of basic education and enroll in the secondary is low; (only 67% of students) compared with net enrollment rate at secondary school in EU countries over 85%). A student in Tirana who has a difficult economic situation, parents with low education level, school far away, the absence of one or both parents in the family, many household members, is much more likely not to enroll in secondary school, after completing basic obligatory education, nine years education. Economic and social developments in Tirana highlight a development of Tirana with many profiles. From the 11 administrative units in five-of them, the developments are relatively lower than in the other six administrative units. The less developed administrative units in Tirana are: the 6th and 11th units and the highest developments administrative unites are the 10th and 5th units. In Unit 6, one in seven people are poor although in Unit 10 one in 25 people are poor. To improve the development, it should be implemented concrete programs and projects with territorial approaches; Education has an essential role to play out of poverty and change the quality of life. This role should be empowered by the state and families by becoming more and more vulnerable to the ideology of education and the quality of education. There are used data from Census 2011 and Living Standard Measurement Survey, LSMS 2012. Descriptive, factorial, cluster analysis and regression methods were used for the analysis of sociodemographic and economic developments. For data processing were used Spss, Stata and Matlab.

Open access

Valeria Biasi, Conny De Vincenzo and Nazarena Patrizi

Abstract

The paper concerns a longitudinal empirical study aiming to establish the relation between certain factors that facilitate (or sometimes hinder) academic achievement such as motivation to study, the cognitive strategies employed and the levels of wellness or distress expressed by indicators like anxiety and depression. It thus aimed to identify the role of these factors on the risk of student drop-out. The study was carried out on a sample of 68 self-selected students enrolled in various degree courses at “Roma Tre” University, who had fully completed the three consecutive surveys geared to investigating their academic experience over a one-year period. The measurement tools used assessed: a) “drop-out intentions” (Hardre & Reeve Scale, 2003); b) “wellness/distress levels”, (Adult Self-Report ASR; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2003); c) cognitive/study strategies (self-regulated knowledge; Manganelli, Alivernini, Mallia & Biasi, 2015); d) motivational aspects (Academic Motivation Scale AMS, validated in Italy by Alivernini and Lucidi (2008). The results show how that the drop-out risk is linked to high levels of depression or distress, poor competence in cognitive strategies adopted, and high levels of “Amotivation” and “External Motivation”. On the basis of the above empirical evidence we propose starting up specific ongoing actions within the university guidance services in order to simultaneously improve wellbeing through emotional support, redefine decisions in the study path in line with personal motivation, and develop adequate cognitive strategies to devise a functional study method.

Open access

Elsa Zela

Abstract

The switch form a centralized economy to free trade during the past two decades in Albania as well as efforts to be integrated into the European Union have led to the growing prevalence of English language, which has become the leading lingua franca for communication between experts not only at international but also national level, as various business documents, contracts, reports, etc. are largely used from Economics graduates in their daily work. This paper seeks to create a Professional Profile (P.P.)for business graduates employed mainly in manufacturing companies operating in international business. Using the P.P. of the Common European Framework of References (CEFR), it identifies English language skills that graduates of Economics, employed in business companies use more often in their working environments and the communication difficulties faced by employees in carrying out the required work. Through interviews, questionnaires and language audit, the study yields vast data on the communication situations mostly needed and used in companies in their everyday work. These data are an input for syllabus design in the field of teaching English for Specific Purposes since they lay the foundation of a syllabus which is based on the real need of the students and the labour market for English Language and communication

Open access

Anna Onoyase

Abstract

The study was set out to investigate the attitude of parents toward female-child secondary education in Sokoto State, Nigeria. One research question and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The study is a descriptive survey and made use of ex-post facto design. The researcher made use of purposive sampling technique to select 270 parents from the urban and 270 parents from the rural areas of Sokoto State. The researcher made use of an instrument adapted from that of Terhemba and Umaru 2015. The instrument is known as “Attitude of Parents Toward Female Child Secondary Education Questionnaire” (APTFCSEQ). The APTFCSEQ had a reliability coefficient of 0.81. The instrument had facial and content validity. It also had language appropriateness. The researcher used four (4) research Assistants to administer 540 copies of the questionnaire on the respondents. All the 540 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved showing 100 percent return rate. The data generated from the field were collated and the mean score analysis for the 15 items was carried out in order to provide answer to the research question raised in the study. 2.5 was chosen as the benchmark for either disagreeing or agreeing with each of the 15 items. The t-test statistics was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The investigation found out that parents in Sokoto State have shown unfavourable attitude toward female-child secondary education. It found out that there is no significant difference between parents in the urban and rural areas in their attitude toward female-child secondary education. This finding has shown that whether the parent is in urban or rural area, all of them have expressed their opinion in the same direction. One of the recommendations of the study is that parents in Sokoto State should show favourable attitude toward female-child secondary education.

Open access

Janne Hedegaard Hansen, Charlotte Riis Jensen, Mikkel Christian Lassen, Mette Molbæk and Maria Christina Secher Schmidt

Abstract

The article presents the results of a review of international research investigating mechanisms and processes of inclusion and exclusion as an ongoing part of social practice in a school context. The review forms part of a research project investigating the social practices of inclusive education in primary and lower-secondary education (age 6–16) in public schools as constituted by processes of inclusion and exclusion. The project aims to shift the scientific focus of research in inclusive education from the development of pedagogical and didactic practice to the importance of community construction through inclusion and exclusion processes. The project arises in context of Danish education policy, while the review looked for international research findings on the limits between inclusion and exclusion: how they are drawn, by whom, for what reasons, and for whose benefit? On the background of the review, we conclude that there seems to be a pattern of inclusive school practice leading to a specific social order that limits inclusion. The review also shows that the construction of the ideal student through various kinds of markers has a huge impact on these limits. A twin-track approach that combines research in the development of inclusive learning environments with research in the constitution of social practice in a school context will produce knowledge of the relation between inclusive school practice and the reproduction of social structures and patterns of inequality.

Open access

Kerasioti Kassiani, Pliakou Evanthia, Vlachou Rafailia-Iro, Aspridis M. George, Blanas Nikolaos and Tselios Dimitrios

Abstract

Internet addiction is the most modern form of addiction and belongs to behavioral addictions. The term appeared in 1996 and spread very quickly all over the world, especially among teenagers and young people. Many users escape the formal use of the Internet and easily lose control of the situation. The article aims to deal with the university students’ addiction to Internet and social media. It is a fact that most young people spend valuable time on the Internet without knowing the negative impact this engagement may have. For this purpose, a questionnaire based on the Internet Addiction Test was formulated, in order to answer a number of questions about Internet addiction, the consequences and causes of this phenomenon, the ways of dealing with the problem, the indications (information) and statistical data available for Greece, etc. The results obtained will be very useful and can be used by researchers to shape the profile of new and future uses, regarding the impact of internet use on professional life and development of young people, but also in dealing with social phenomena and adaptation problems.

Open access

U. A. Asa, V. V. Nkan and G. I. Okoro

Abstract

The study ascertained the influence of spousal communication about family planning on contraceptive use among married couples in the rural areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained from one hundred and fifty married couples using multi-stage sampling procedure. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. Results indicate that 71.3% of the respondents were females with an average age of 38 years while 28.7% of them were males with an average age of 49 years; fourteen years was the respondents’ average years of marriage. Findings also show that barrier methods, hormonal contraceptives and injectables were the contraceptive methods highly used by the respondents; and majority of the married couples had a favourable spousal communication about family planning disposition. Multiple regression analysis result shows that contraceptive use by the respondents was significantly influenced by their spousal communication about family planning. It is recommended, among others, that intervention programmes of Governmental and Non-Governmental agencies in Akwa Ibom State emphasize the importance of spousal communication about family planning in their programmes and encourage same among targeted beneficiaries of such programmes.

Open access

Özer Bakar, Yavuz Soykan and Burcu Acar

Abstract

Life insurance is a type of insurance that protects individuals or their relatives who are left behind after death or permanent injury. Although it is quite different from the diversity in the world, life insurance in Turkey, which also allows accumulation with providing death benefit, contribute to the tendency of people to save money. One of the reasons for slower development in life insurances in Turkey compared to the countries in the world stems from the education in the field of insurance. Indicators such as insufficient number of institutes and experts in the field and low ratio of insurance literacy are the outcomes of this inadequate education system. Hence, lack of education is directly connected with the level of students’ knowledge. The aim of this study, in which a cross-tabulated survey is used, is to measure the undergraduates’ knowledge level of basics of life insurance at the department of Insurance and Risk Management in Dumlupinar University. Results show that students who are taking education at the Dumlupinar University at the department of Insurance and Risk Management, have very low knowledge about basic life insurance. This study is important in determining the knowledge level of the students who will be in the insurance sector in the future and who will have an individual relationship with the customers.

Open access

Evelyn B. Aguirre and Solomon D. Faller

Abstract

This study aimed to explore the teaching-learning congruence between mid-career teachers and millennial learners which remains a global challenge. After 15-30 years of teaching, they face issues on self-absorption with great desire to develop themselves instead of mentoring others. In the Philippines, they resort to printed learning materials, while the millennials are highly addicted to technology and ecopies. Self-reflected learning is dominant in mid-career teachers, while collaborative learning works well with millennial learners. The said divide in their teaching and learning strategies results to constant struggles among mid-career teachers. In Australia and some countries, there is scanty literature on midcareer teachers. This phenomenological case study in a Philippine teaching university unraveled their day-to-day struggles as they coped and bridged the teaching-learning divide. Results can usher in a paradigm shift in mid-career teachers teaching as well as produce policy enablers with capacity building to manage millennials as top priority in the Philippines, in Asia and abroad.

Open access

Valeria Biasi, Luca Mallia, Paolo Russo, Francesca Menozzi, Rita Cerutti and Cristiano Violani

Abstract

The literature shows that homesickness can have a negative impact on different areas of psychological functioning such as cognitive, emotional, behavioral, physical and social ones. The study, conducted on a sample of first-year university students, aimed to test a model hypothesizing that two distinct dimensions of homesickness, attachment to home and disliking university, could have both direct and indirect effects on their psychological distress and sleep difficulties. Two hundred and seventy-seven first-year students (70.4% Female) living away from home (mean age= 21.3, SD= 2.7) were included in the study and filled out questionnaires assessing homesickness, psychological distress and sleep difficulties. Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis confirmed that the two homesickness dimensions worked differently since only the one relating to new place adjustment difficulties (i.e. disliking the university) resulted having both direct and indirect effects on students’ sleep difficulties. Although female students reported higher levels of psychological distress compared to males, the multi-group SEM analysis showed that the pattern of multivariate relationships linking the two dimensions of homesickness, psychological distress and sleep difficulties, was invariant across gender. The results of the present study suggest that university counselling and guidance services should quickly screen students experiencing homesickness and offer effective counselling programs focusing on enhancing their capacities to deal with the new academic environment.