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Ioan Mihai Japie, Radu Rădulescu, Adrian Bădilă, Ecaterina-Maria Japie, Alexandru Papuc, Traian Ciobanu, Adrian Dumitru and Cătălin Cîrstoiu

Abstract

Introduction. Bisphosphonates (BPs) represent the main therapy in patients with osteoporosis, although a long-term treatment can lead to atypical fractures.

Material and methods. We conducted a retrospective study between 2008 and 2017 and included 23 female patients with atypical femoral fractures (AFFs). The mean period of BPs therapy administration was 5.2 years. We included 7 subtrochanteric fractures and 18 femoral shaft fractures. Two of the total patients presented bilateral femoral fractures. 18 patients presented prodromal symptoms from 2 to 18 months before the diagnosis of fractures, all of them following low energy trauma. All the patients included in our study underwent surgery with intramedullary nail or gamma nail. The postoperative mean follow-up was 2 years. Results. Of all 23 female patients with a total of 25 fractures – 10 underwent osteosynthesis with gamma nail and 15 underwent osteosynthesis with intramedullary nail. From the total number of patients: 13 patients achieved complete union, 6 presented delayed union and 3 non-union (2 intramedullary nail and one gamma nail), whereas in one patient treated previously with gamma nail we observed implant failure.

Conclusion. The treatment of AFFs after BPs therapy administration represents a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons regarding both surgical technique and postoperative follow-up.

Open access

Hülya Türkan, Bensu Karahalil, Ela Kadıoğlu, Kenan Eren, Defne Tamar Gürol and Ali Esat Karakaya

Abstract

Susceptibility to addiction has a complex genetic basis that includes genes associated with the action and metabolism of drugs of abuse. One important gene in that respect is OPRM1, which codes for the μ-opioid receptor and has an important role in mediating the rewarding effects of addiction substances. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of the OPRM1 A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) in Turkish population and to investigate its association with opioid and other substance addiction. In addition, we examined the association of rs1799971 in addicted patients who were also diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. The study included 103 patients addicted to opioids, cocaine, ecstasy, alcohol, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), cannabis, and sedative/hypnotic substances and 83 healthy volunteers with similar demographic features as controls. rs1799971 polymorphisms were identified with the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). The genotype frequencies were significantly higher in the addicted patients than controls (32.0 % vs 16.9 %, respectively; p=0.027). The prevalence of the G allele was 16.1 % in the addicted group and 8.4 % in the control group (p=0.031). Our study confirmed the association between the rs1799971(G) allele frequency and opioid and other substance addiction, but not with psychiatric disorders.

Open access

Dauren Botbayev, Gloria Ravegnini, Giulia Sammarini, Polat Kazymbet, Elisabetta Cilli, Patrizia Serventi, Alexandra Khanseitova, Bakhytzhan Alzhanuly, Ayaz Belkozhaev, Nagima Aitkhozhina, Meirat Bakhtin, Vittorio Lodi, Patrizia Hrelia and Sabrina Angelini

Abstract

Individuals chronically exposed to low-level ionising radiation (IR) run the risk of harmful and long-term adverse health effects, including gene mutations and cancer development. The search for reliable biomarkers of IR exposure in human population is still of great interest, as they may have a great implementation potential for the surveillance of occupationally exposed individuals. In this context, and considering previous literature, this study aimed to identify mutations in the human interferon alpha-2b (hIFNα-2b) as a potential biomarker of occupational chronic low-dose IR exposure linking low-IR exposure to the effects on haematopoiesis and reduced immunity. The analysis was performed in the genomic DNA of 51 uranium miners and 38 controls from Kazakhstan, and in 21 medical radiology workers and 21 controls from Italy. hIFNα-2b gene mutations were analysed with the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or Sanger sequencing. However, none of the investigated workers had the hIFNα-2b mutation. This finding highlights the need for further research to identify biomarkers for early detection of health effects associated with chronic low-dose IR exposure.

Open access

Asif Ahmed Kibria, Kamrunnessa, Md. Mahmudur Rahman and Annanya Kar

Abstract

Banana plants (Musa paradaisica) and banana peels (Musa sapientum) two of same genus Musa are grown in worldwide and consumed as ripe fruit or used for culinary purpose. All parts of the banana plants have medicinal applications. The aim of the present study was detection of phytochemicals from this two types of samples and find out some viable phytochemicals which might be used as food additives after commercial purification. These two types of samples banana plants and banana peels were collected from local area of sobhanbagh near Daffodil International University. Samples were washed and dried in room temperature and grinded in pestle. Then 25 gm of grinded samples were soaked in 75 ml of 70% methanol, ethanol, acetone and 0.9% NaCl solution for 72 hours. Then all the extracts of banana peels and banana plants were detected by standard protocol. Flavonoids, carbohydrates, reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, anthraquinones, steroids, glycosides, phytosterols, phenols, terpenoids, were detected from those extracts. Negative and positive result of presence of phytochemicals were detected by the observing of color change. Banana peels and banana plant extracts were showed maximum result in ethanolic extracts. The present study showed qualitative analysis of phytochemicals content existence in banana peels and banana plants extracts. The study also discussed the application of some phytochemicals in food industry.

Open access

Aleksandar Dodovski, Zagorka Popova and Vladimir Savić

Abstract

Avian avulavirus type 1 (AAvV-1) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Avulavirus. Even though belonging to a single serotype, there is great genetic variability between these viruses. On the basis of the available complete fusion (F) gene and whole genome sequences and using the genotype classification system, AAvV-1 viruses are divided in two major groups: class I and class II. Class I viruses are predominantly avirulent viruses and majority of the isolations come from waterfowl and domestic poultry from live bird markets in USA and China although isolations from wild birds are reported globally. In our study we used classical, molecular and phylogenetic tools to characterize an AAvV-1 isolated from a mute swan in Macedonia. Based on the complete F gene sequence, we have concluded that the virus designated as AAvV-1/mute swan/Macedonia/546/2012 (KP123431) belongs to the class I of AAvV-1 with an avirulent cleavage site motif 112ERQER*L117. The virus could not be assigned to any of the four currently existing subgenotypes (1a, 1b, 1c or 1d) of the single genotype 1 of class I viruses. Two distant viruses, isolated from goose in Alaska in 1991 and from goose in Ohio in 1987, shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity of the complete F gene with the isolate in our study: 92.7% and 92.8%, respectively. This is the first report of isolation of class I AAvV-1 in Southeastern Europe. The asymptomatic nature and the underreporting of sequences from the class I viruses impede the understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of this group of viruses.

Open access

Abishkar Khatiwada, Aadesh Subedi and Rashmi Dangol

Abstract

The study mainly focuses on the status of production and marketing of large cardamom in Nepal and also compares these dimensions in the context of different countries. For the study mainly secondary data were collected from research articles, reports, publications and news articles. Large cardamom is the third most expensive crop and one of the major cash crops of Nepal. Nepal is the largest producer of large cardamom in the world followed by India and Bhutan. Taplejung, Sankhuwasabha, Panchthar and Illam are the four major districts that contribute more than 80% of the national production. Cardamom produced in Nepal is graded according to tail cutting after drying and packed in jute bag or plastic to export it to foreign countries. Nepal exports almost 90 percentage of its total cardamom production to India. In the global scenario, Guatemala is the largest exporter of cardamom (small and large combined) followed by India, Nepal, Singapore and Indonesia respectievly. It was found that the production of cardamom is declining in Nepal due to price fluctuation and viral diseases such as Chirkey, Furkey. Problem such as absence of unique HS code for large cardamom and ‘duplicate large cardamom’ are also seen in the market.

Open access

B. Matev

Abstract

The aim of this study is to present results after different procedures of surgical treatment of the unstable shoulder joint: arthroscopic stabilization; arthroscopic stabilization followed by the operative technique by Matev; the Latarjet procedure in cases with the presence of bone defects. From 2004 to 2017 291 patients aged between 15 and 35 years were operated at the University Hospital “Prof. B. Boychev”, Medical University − Sofia. 247 patients had anterior and 44 − combined shoulder instability. 173 of the patients were active athletes practicing different disciplines. The average age at the time of the first dislocation was 17 years. In 172 patients, the first dislocation occurred without significant trauma, 124 of them had anterior shoulder instability and 48 – combined shoulder instability. In 120 patients with anterior dislocations, there was history of a serious injury during the first accident. The number of dislocations varied between ten and fifteen in all patients. For the same period, 45 patients with significant bone defects requiring open surgery (Latarjet procedure) were operated. Among the patients with bone defects, the dislocations were between 8 and 30 before the first examination. There were 11 patients, who had undergone previous surgery in different hospitals and different number of relaxations after surgery were found. The data were evaluated radiographically and clinically. Functionally, the patients recovered according to a well-established protocol of physiotherapy and the external rotation regained the full range of motion. The patients were able to return to their sports activity. The successful results in all patients show that these combined operative techniques can be the method of choice in the treatment of a greater number of dislocations of the shoulder, especially in people who seek to quickly return to active sport activities.

Open access

M. Nikolova, Vl. Milenova, D. Yosifov, Y. Vlahov and V. Tenev

Abstract

Cocaine is a natural alkaloid extracted from the leaves of the South American plant Erythroxylum coca or synthesized chemically. After cannabis, it is the second most frequently abused recreational substance worldwide. Cocaine can affect every tissue and organ within the human body, including the kidneys, causing tissue ischemia due to vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction and damage, procoagulant activity and oxidative stress with subsequent ischemic infarctions and fibrosis. The renal changes in cocaine abuse and addiction are due to rhabdomyolysis, ischemic, hypertensive, and inflammatory changes with the development of cell proliferation and fibrosis. The authors present three patients with cocaine-associated renal damage and discuss the underlying mechanisms of cocaine-induces tissue changes.

Open access

Kalina Grivcheva Stardelova, Aleksandar Stojanovik, Rozalinda Popova Jovanovska, Sonja Stavrik, Magdalena Dimitrova, Neda Milevska Kostova and Vladimir Serafimoski

Abstract

We describe the clinical course of a patient who developed high-grade lymphoma during immunosuppression treatment with cyclosporine A, following liver transplantation. After anti-neoplastic polychemotherapy treatment, the remission of lymphoma was confirmed and maintained for over four years.

The patient, a 27 year old female had liver transplantation at the age of 17, due to acute liver failure, caused by non-diagnosed Wilson disease. Nearly seven years post-transplantation, the patient was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma (NHBCL), potentially induced by Cephalosporin A therapy. After the treatment with rituximab and CHOP therapy (r-CHOP protocol), remission was determined using computer tomography. Remission is maintained to date.

A review of reported cases of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) in liver transplanted (LT) patients showed that the onset of PTLDs is the highest in the first year after transplantation. In addition, remission rates of NHBCL in LT patients are not much elaborated in the literature. It is our opinion that the presented case is rare, both from the aspect of timeline of occurrence of the PTLD and the achieved remission, using r-CHOP protocol.

Open access

Aleksandra Pivkova Veljanovska, Zlate Stojanoski, Lazar Chadievski, Irina Panovska Stavridis, Sanja Trajkova, Lidija Cevreska and Borche Georgievski

Abstract

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is one of the most serious complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in paediatric setting. It is most commonly reported as adverse event of immunosuppressive strategies during transplantation. We present a case of a 7 years old girl with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) at our department. Diagnosis of PRES was confirmed by imaging techniques during the first month after transplant and it was very likely connected with cyclosporine neurotoxicity. The aim of this article is to present our first experience in diagnosing and treating PRES in paediatric stem cell transplantation. Our experience showed that PRES is one of the reasons for higher transplant related mortality in children. Early prediction of factors contributing to PRES and closely monitoring of patient’s vital signs, especially blood pressure, neurological status and vision are the main contributors for challenging the patient with another immunosuppressive agent that has less neurological toxicity. Still studies have to be initiated to confirm the influence of PRES on transplant outcome.