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Irena Palić, Sabina Hodžić and Ksenija Dumičić

Abstract

Background: In recent years’ income inequality has been an economic issue. The primary instrument for redistributing income is personal income tax. However, based on economic theory income inequality concerns indicators such as wages, transfer payments, taxes, social security contributions, and geographical mobility. Objectives: The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of certain labor market indicators on personal income taxation in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FB&H). Methods/Approach: Since personal income taxation consists of a very broad definition and for the purpose of this research only, income from dependent (employment) activity is observed. The econometric analysis is conducted using error correction modeling, as well as forecast errors variance decomposition. Results: The error correction model is estimated, and the cointegrating equation indicates that monthly wage and number of employees statistically significantly positively affect personal income taxes in FB&H in the long-run. After two years, the selected labor market indicators explain a considerable part of forecasting error variance of personal income tax revenues. Conclusions: The implementation of reforms in the labor market and tax policies of the FB&H is suggested. In order to achieve necessary reforms, efficient governance and general stable political environment are required.

Open access

Christof Gellweiler

Abstract

Background: Information technology (IT) requires substantial investments from enterprises to build competitive capabilities. IT products are supposed to provide value to customers and to increase the competitiveness of enterprises. Vendors of IT products should take the competitive strategy and value creation for enterprise buyers into account. Objectives: This article takes the perspective of IT vendors (ITVs) and attempts to answer the research questions “What types of customer value do ITVs consider?” and “Do ITVs consider the competitiveness of enterprises?” Methods/Approach: This research investigates descriptions from ITVs and analyzes patterns and correlations of coded content. The annual reports of 32 global market-leading ITVs were examined through direct content analysis. Results: Half of the annual reports mention the competitiveness of enterprise buyers; 84% of the samples relate to customer-value disciplines. Moderate positive and monotonic relationships were detected between customer value disciplines. Conclusions: ITVs consider the competitiveness of buyers and noticeably regard customer value disciplines, mainly operational excellence, that in turn refers to process efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

Open access

Julian Lekoçaj and Valter Hoxha

Abstract

Background: Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs) are part of a few products that Albania exports in World’s level. The results showed us that the available MAPs value chain information in Albania through several cases is limited and doesn’t match with reality. Objectives: Our research aims to verify the actual situation of the information system between the actors of the MAPs value chain in Albania. Methods/Approach: In this research is used the systemic method, which takes into consideration the analysis through all the main value chain links. For each value of the chain links has been selected a statistical representation number or a sample. Results: The actors that operate through the MAPs market in Albania are in front of the asymmetric information. The sources and the methods used are not on the proper level to offer the real results in this value chain. There are many information system sources for the Albanian MAPs sector, but none of them offers any detailed data about the quantity and the value on plant’s level. Conclusions: The information system of the MAPs value chain is not functional through all the links, while the fabrication still remains on limited levels. The creation of a monitoring system database in time and space for the entire MAPs sector is a necessity.

Open access

Andrej Jerman, Ivan Erenda and Andrej Bertoncelj

Abstract

Background: The crucial elements of a smart factory, employees, machines, and products, have an important effect on current business models. Objectives: The main aim of our study is to present a case study of the impact of Industry 4.0 on the business model in a smart factory. The paper discusses the changes of business models of the organisation and determines critical factors that influence the business models in a knowledge society. Methods/Approach: Our sample included managers, from the company TPV, who are in charge of implementing a digital business model, and who are the most knowledgeable informants on the topic of our study. Data was obtained from, most widely used method for data collection in qualitative research, semi-structured interviews with managers. Content analysis was conducted for the purpose of our study. Results: Results of our study show that the major change will be that machines will have a “mind” of their own, whose main goal will be to work in production, and the role of employees will be primarily in expressing their creativity, carrying out urgent interventions and performing custody of processes. The key critical factors influencing business models in a smart factory are top management and leadership orientations, motivation of employees, collective wisdom, creativity and innovations. Conclusions: The study represents useful guidelines for strategic management of innovative companies in the earliest stages of the process of decision-making process.

Open access

Eoghan McConalogue, Paul Davis and Regina Connolly

Abstract

Background: Recently the European Union, through its Horizon 2020 fund has awarded numerous research projects tasked with the development of cloud-based health technology solutions. A number of these projects have a specific focus on ambient assisted living (AAL) technologies; solutions that offer a unique opportunity to improve the quality of life of persons with mild cognitive impairments. The diffusion of these solutions across a European wide cloud infrastructure presents a novel opportunity to reduce economic pressures currently experienced by European health systems. However, no route to market framework currently exists for a European wide healthcare delivery system. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to conduct the review and develop the literature around technology assessment for AAL technologies and route to market frameworks. Methods/Approach: We highlight the role of Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) when conducting a technology assessment by reviewing existent literature. Results: We discuss three TCO models that can support the assessment of AAL technologies. Conclusions: There is a gap in the analysis of TCO models in the context of AAL technologies particularly in public and private sector collaborations. TCO process should be developed into a key award criterion when conducting AAL technology assessment and procurements, thus aiding long term strategic decision making.

Open access

Ana Teixeira, Tiago Oliveira and João Varajão

Abstract

Background: Many studies found in literature only focus on specific aspects of the evaluation of the success of projects, such as the criteria for evaluation; and just a few are focused on the activities for evaluating success. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to present the process for evaluating the success of Business Intelligence (BI) projects in a large company. Methods/Approach: An exploratory case study was carried out at Tintas Robbialac, SA, a Portuguese company of the paint industry. Results: The specific company approach for evaluating the success of BI projects is presented and discussed. Conclusions: The process for evaluating the success of BI, as well as the evaluation criteria, should be formally defined; and the success should be evaluated and monitored along all the project lifecycle.

Open access

Pierre Bakunzibake, Gunnar O. Klein and Sirajul M. Islam

Abstract

Background: Failures in e-government projects to deliver expected results are frequent in the context of developing countries. These are partly attributed to the lack of balanced attention to both technical and social aspects in the implementation. However, there has been limited research on these aspects in the least Developed Countries. Objectives: Taking a socio-technical perspective, this study aims at exploring the extent of changes and effects in the implementation of e-government service-oriented initiatives in Rwanda, one of the Least Developed Countries. Methods/Approach: An empirical investigation was conducted, via interviews at 8 agencies during the period from January 2017 to May 2018. This involved two case projects, an Enterprise Content Management System and a One-Stop e-government system. Furthermore, government documents and online material were analyzed. Results: A number of changes in technology, processes and people aspects were faced in both projects. However, those changes are coupled with secondary effects; there is a need for a better fit between technical systems and social systems of organizations implementing e-government; a larger gap was identified in the first case project. Conclusions: Addressing the issues as a socio-technical system would contribute to improved work systems of agencies and better services.

Open access

Josip Čičak and Davor Vašiček

Abstract

Background: Using a variety of alternative accounting policies brings about different effects on the stated business results and the value of the company. Objectives: The objective of this paper is to develop a fuzzy logic solution for determining bias in financial reports on low-activity financial markets, and to find a method applicable to unquoted entities. Methods/Approach: A fuzzy logic system was developed using data on Croatian companies, the MatLab software, and the Mamdani fuzzy inference method. Results: The paper provides the summary of results obtained using a fuzzy logic system, and they indicate that the model has relevant validity. Conclusions: The model can serve as a stimulus for more detailed studies of biased financial statements elements. The fuzzy logic model should be further tested on a larger sample of companies classified based on their activity and under different business conditions.

Open access

Arbana Kadriu, Lejla Abazi and Hyrije Abazi

Abstract

Background: Text classification is a very important task in information retrieval. Its objective is to classify new text documents in a set of predefined classes, using different supervised algorithms. Objectives: We focus on the text classification for Albanian news articles using two approaches. Methods/Approach: In the first approach, the words in a collection are considered as independent components, allocating to each of them a conforming vector in the vector’s space. Here we utilized nine classifiers from the scikit-learn package, training the classifiers with part of news articles (80%) and testing the accuracy with the remaining part of these articles. In the second approach, the text classification treats words based on their semantic and syntactic word similarities, supposing a word is formed by n-grams of characters. In this case, we have used the fastText, a hierarchical classifier, that considers local word order, as well as sub-word information. We have measured the accuracy for each classifier separately. We have also analyzed the training and testing time. Results: Our results show that the bag of words model does better than fastText when testing the classification process for not a large dataset of text. FastText shows better performance when classifying multi-label text. Conclusions: News articles can serve to create a benchmark for testing classification algorithms of Albanian texts. The best results are achieved with a bag of words model, with an accuracy of 94%.

Open access

Tomasz L. Nawrocki

Abstract

The paper aims to present an empirical application of an originally developed model for corporate potential innovativeness assessment and comparison. The proposed model provides a framework for combined static and dynamic potential innovativeness assessment with the use of fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic is used to assess corporate potential innovativeness from two perspectives: resources conditioning innovation activities in an enterprise, and the engagement of an enterprise in their continuous development. In this context, selected companies from the information technology sector listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange were examined. The need for corporate innovativeness measurement and evaluation for management purposes arises from its growing importance in building enterprise value and achieving long-term competitive advantage. The proposed model enables the fairly current and good orientation in both general and a more in-depth innovativeness potential level of the assessed enterprises. This can be the basis for various comparison analysis and managerial decisions regarding e.g. innovation management as well as managing corporate image and reputation.