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Open access

Codrut Sarafoleanu and Raluca Enache

Abstract

Dysphagia is a common disorder associated with a large number of etiologies like aging, stroke, traumatic brain injury, head and neck cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, structural changes or congenital abnormalities. The type of the treatment and its results depend on the type, severity and the cause of dysphagia. The primary goal of dysphagia treatment is to improve the swallowing process and decrease the risk of aspiration.

Along with the existing rehabilitation swallowing treatments, new adjunctive therapy options developed, one of them being the neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES).

The authors present the principles of NMES, a small literature review about the results of this therapy and their experience in using transcutaneous NMES in dysphagia patients.

Open access

Daniela Vrinceanu, Ana Maria Oproiu, Mihai Dumitru, Madalina Georgescu and Mariana Costache

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Excision of facial cutaneous carcinomas requires further reconstruction in a combined team with plastic surgeons. Among the traditional risk factors, the unprotected occupational exposure to sunlight can be identified. Giant masses at the level of the nose are frequently squamous carcinomas in origin. Moreover, repeated tumor trauma favours local-regional and remote extension.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We present step by step the surgical management of an old woman with a nasal mass of 58/36/20 mm. Also, the patient presented right genian tumefaction of approximately 6 months in evolution.

RESULTS. The patient was submitted to surgical resection with free margins, leaving a considerable nasal and genian groove defect. Teaming up with the plastic surgeon, we applied complex reconstruction techniques with a satisfactory aesthetic and functional result. The histopathologic diagnosis confirmed our suspicion of an acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma with lymph nodes metastasis.

CONCLUSION. Our case exhibited traditional risk factors, living in a rural environment. The tumor degree of aggressiveness was increased by repeated self-inflicted trauma. Late presentation to healthcare services implied complex facial reconstruction for the combined resection of the nasal tip and genian lymph node.

Open access

Klaus Vogt, Inese Daine-Loza and Maris Sperga

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Radiofrequency reduction and Coblation are widely used procedures for the treatment of functionally enlarged turbinates with an appropriate outcome. Bleeding and crusting are postoperative complications for Coblation. Thermographic measurements and histological analyses were used to elucidate the causes.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. In a porcine turbinate model, double-needle electrodes of different lengths were tested using a 4MHz radiofrequency current with either automatic energy limitation or a predetermined energy amount of 200 J. Coblation, according to the manufacturer’s instructions, was carried out with a Reflex Ultra 45 wand. The generated temperature was measured with thermo-probes at the tip of the electrodes. The mucosa was subsequently investigated histologically.

RESULTS. Without preoperative saline injection, all procedures generate temperatures < 100° C. After saline injection, excessive temperatures are reached by Coblation after the release of plasma in a closed system. The follow-up is a severe deterioration of the microscopic structures of the mucosa. The low-temperature advantages of Coblation are only effective if the mandatory saline solution rinses the surface. The Radiofrequency applications deliver more predictable results.

CONCLUSION. For the treatment of the functional enlargement of the turbinates, Radiofrequency current with proofed settings should be chosen.

Open access

Andreea Marza and Claudiu Manea

Abstract

We report a case of a 47-year-old patient recently diagnosed with left abducens nerve palsy, who was admitted in our clinic with diplopia. The cranio-facial CT scan revealed left sphenoid fungal rhinosinusitis and the patient underwent endoscopic surgery with complete removal of the fungal material. The immediate postoperative evolution of the patient was favourable, with partial improvement of diplopia. The first month follow-up visit revealed the recurrence of the diplopia, so the patient performed an MRI scan of the brain that showed a cavernous sinus meningioma. The patient was referred to a neurosurgeon who choose a “wait-and-see” strategy instead of surgery.

The paper presents the limits of computed tomography versus magnetic resonance imaging in the radiologic diagnosis of intracranial tumors.

Open access

Lucian Lapusneanu, Marlena Radulescu and Florin Ghita

Abstract

The cases with sphenoid sinusitis associated with abducens nerve palsy are rarely cited in the literature. We present the case of a 41-year-old patient who was hospitalized for right hemicrania and ipsilateral paresis of the abducens nerve, without any other ENT previous pathology. The ENT, ophthalmologic, neurological and paraclinical evaluations (nasal endoscopy, MRI examination) have established the diagnosis of right sphenoid rhinosinusitis complicated with unilateral abducens nerve palsy. In such cases, it is important to make a differential diagnosis with tumor pathology as well as that of an infection outbreak located intracranially. In this case, the patient’s evolution was favourable after endoscopic surgical treatment of the sphenoid rhinosinusitis.

Open access

Irén Csiszér, Silvu Albu, Cristian Mircea Neagos, Marius Navadarszki and Adriana Neagos

Abstract

OBJECTIVE. This study examines the association between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and the pharyngeal parameters using the ultrasound of the submental region.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. For this study, data obtained from 40 patients, who had undergone investigations in the Galenus Medical Centre in order to diagnose sleep apnea, was analyzed. The following parameters were compared: the transverse diameter of the retrolingual region, the transverse diameter of the retropalatal region and the tongue base thickness. These regions were measured at different moments of respiration such as: during forced expiration, during forced inspiration and while the patients performed Müller’s Manoeuvre. The neck circumference, the body mass index of patients and the severity of sleep apnea obtained from polysomnography were analyzed.

RESULTS. The evaluation of the results revealed: severe obstructive sleep apnea in 16 patients, respectively moderate severity in 10 patients, mild apnea in 4 patients, and no obstructive sleep apnea in 10 patients. Statistically significant results (p<0.05) were found after comparing the parameters obtained in patients with severe apnea versus the parameters in patients without apnea, with mild or respectively moderate apnea.

CONCLUSION. Based on the results obtained, we consider that cervical ultrasound is useful in the diagnosis of severe obstructive apnea, identifying the pathological changes of the anatomical structures that basically cause this category of disease. Due to the fact that in our country ultrasound is a relatively inexpensive method, being also a non-irradiating, repeatable and accessible method, it should be more widely applied also in the field of otorhinolaryngology in order to view structures accessible to this type of imaging.

Open access

Ionut Tanase, Claudiu Manea and Codrut Sarafoleanu

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Sleep apnea is a pathology with an ever-increasing spread, the causes being the most diverse. In this study we focus on sleep breathing disorders caused by nasal obstruction and also by soft palate and uvula anatomical changes. The right treatment recommended in this pathology according to the American Academy Sleep Medicine (AASM) is non-invasive ventilation – positive airway pressure (CPAP). A substantial percentage of patients with obstructive sleep apnea seek alternatives to CPAP and the solution for this can be upper airway surgery.

OBJECTIVE. The attempt to demonstrate the viability of upper respiratory tract surgery as an alternative to CPAP treatment, demonstrating objectives by pre- and postoperative polysomnographic control.

RESULTS. Aggregating the data from all 54 patients with nasal obstruction and pharyngeal modifications, we observed a decrease in AHI from 20.406/h to 15.86/h, representing 32.36%, an improvement in sleep architecture and especially REM sleep from 41.5 minutes initially to 67.8 minutes (increased value with 63.37 percent).

CONCLUSION. The benefits of nasopharyngeal repermeabilization surgery are represented by decreasing the severity of respiratory events and, second to this, lowering the number of arousals. By reducing the number of arousals, one will obtain a better percentage regarding the deep sleep phase - REM, having a beneficial effect on reducing the daytime sleepiness – which is a major symptom that patients are present.

Open access

Anvar Amonov, Bakhrom Yusupov, Akbar Khasanov, Akhmad Madaminov, Zohir Shukurov, Rahimjon Bekmirzaev, Gulrukh Botiralieva and Azizbek Omonov

Abstract

The cyst is accumulated fluid or mass in a cavity lined by pathological epithelium. The mandible and the maxilla are bones with high prevalence of cyst formation in the human body. Cystic affections, with or without bone destruction of the hard palate, are considered benign tumours. We present the case of a 20-year-old young man with a cystic lesion of the hard palate having lasted for 7 months.

Open access

Iulia Sabaru, Codrut Sarafoleanu and Alina Maria Borcan

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Acute and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) are common conditions worldwide. In most cases, the etiology of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) is viral, but there can be cases complicated by bacterial infection. The bacterial pathogens responsible for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) in most cases are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Moraxella catarrhalis. In recent years, some changes regarding this issue have been communicated. Also, the pathophysiology of CRS becomes a problem due to the increasing percentage of resistant or recurrent cases.

OBJECTIVE. To identify the bacterial spectrum in patients diagnosed with ABRS and CRS and to establish the actual resistance rates of the most prescribed antibiotics for these affections in order to initiate the correct antibiotic treatment.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a prospective study on 40 adult patients with ABRS and 70 patients with CRS. The standard microbiological procedures were performed in order to identify the involved microorganisms. The Antibiotic Susceptibility Test of the clinical isolates was performed to routinely used antibiotics according to EUCAST.

RESULT. ABRS: A total of 21 types of pathogenic bacteria were isolated. The results indicated changes in the percentages of the traditionally involved bacteria, other species of streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus representing important pathogens. Almost half of the samples were polymicrobial. CRS: 12 bacteria were incriminated for CRS, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most frequently identified pathogens. Regarding the antibiotic treatment, we established that in our country the resistance rates are higher than the ones communicated by WHO (especially for macrolides) and the fluoroquinolones seem to be the class with the highest safety profile.

CONCLUSION. Study results demonstrate some changes of the bacteriologic spectrum in ABRS in this geographic area. The pathogens responsible for CRS are found in approximately the same percentage as presented in other studies. Antibiotic treatment demands attention considering the increasing trend of antibiotic resistance of the bacteria causing ABRS and CRS.

Open access

Vlad A. Budu, Tatiana Decuseara, Ioan Bulescu, Andrei Panfiloiu, Lavinia Georgiana Sava and Mihai Tusaliu

Abstract

Graves ophthalmopathy, an autoimmune disease, associated with hypermetabolism, enlargement of the thyroid gland and exophthalmia are the most frequent expressions of Graves’ disease, which often require surgical treatment. We present the case of a 41-year-old male with severe Graves ophthalmopathy for which we performed an endoscopic orbital decompression with good surgical outcome, the patient being discharged after 48 hours.