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Open access

Kateryna Posokhova, Iryna Stechyshyn, Inna Krynytska, Mariya Marushchak, Inna Birchenko and Ivan Klishch

Abstract

Background and aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multifactorial metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia caused by insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. It is a global public health problem. This study aimed to determine specific pharmacological effect of quercetin in water soluble and liposomal preparations in experimental diabetes mellitus. Material and methods: We examined the effect of Corvitin and Lipoflavone (at the dose of 10 mg / kg body weight) in a comparative study in white rats with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes coupled with obesity. To simulate the forms of diabetes mellitus most analogous to those in humans we used Streptozotocin at the doses of 30 mg / kg and 50 mg / kg. We tested the levels of glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, and interleukins 6 and 4 in the blood. Results: In animals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes Lipoflavone significantly reduces glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels compared to the rats treated with Corvitin. When administered to animals with diabetes, the effect of quercetin in liposomal form on the concentrations of IL-6, IL-4 and Creactive protein is also larger compared to the water-soluble form. Conclusions: Water soluble quercetin preparation Corvitin and to a larger extent liposomal preparation of this flavonoid, Lipoflavone, show anti-inflammatory effect and restore key parameters of carbohydrate metabolism in experimental type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes coupled with obesity, reducing blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels.

Open access

Cristian Serafinceanu, Viviana Elian, Doina Catrinoiu, Cristian Guja, Bogdan Mihai, Maria Mota, Gabriela Roman and Romulus Timar

Abstract

Background and aims: PREDATORR Study estimated diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence in Romania at 11.7%. MENTOR is the first national major study trying to determine the quality of the metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), the therapeutic options used, and the microvascular and macrovascular complications prevalence in order to achieve a better management for Romanian patients with T2DM. Material and methods: The study was designed as an observational analytical, multicenter, prospective study. Study population was selected from T2DM patients stratified by: age, diabetes duration and gender. Data was collected in an eCRF: demographics, physical examination, cardiovascular evaluation, blood tests, known pathology, treatment. Results: There were 54.80% women, mean age was 60.53±7.39 years. The average BMI is over 30 kg/m2 with a decreasing trend over the age. 60% had their HbA1c over the threshold of 7%. Average blood pressure was less than 140/80 mmHg. 76,66% of T2DM subjects have at least one chronic complication. On oral therapy we have 55.44% of patients, on insulin only therapy 12.99% and on a combination of oral and insulin therapy 22.51%. Conclusions: This study showed a high prevalence of diabetes complications and metabolic alterations (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, etc.). Age, male gender and diabetes duration were associated with a higher risk for poor metabolic control and complications. Further data will be collected over a 3 years period to obtain a better image over T2DM evolution in Romanian population.

Open access

Volodymyr Pankiv and Ivan Pankiv

Abstract

Background and aims: Vitamin D status in many health managements have been researched extensively, but its dependence with obesity still remains controversial. This article is devoted to examination of blood cholecalciferol levels in Ukrainian population with establishment the association of cholecalciferol levels and body mass index (BMI). Materials and methods: For this observed investigation, data were collected during the summer 2017, over a period of one week from three township areas in Carpathian region, Ukraine from 304 adults aged 19-78 years. Measured variables contained 25(OH)D level, weight and weight applied to check BMI degree. The average level of vitamin D among adolescents presented 23.1 ± 8.2 ng/ml. Female gender was associated with lower vitamin D concentrations (22.9 ± 9.3 ng/ml vs. 26.2 ± 8.5 ng/ml for men). Among the participants, 74.4% had a BMNI of 25 kg/m2 and over, and in 27.3% of them the number was 30 kg/m2 and over. Results: Violation of vitamin D status was detected in 90.5% persons. 1.8% people had been identified as severe 25(OH)D deficiency. Measurement of cholecalciferol demonstrated meaningful connection between its level and BMI only in persons with BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2. Average vitamin D concentrations in persons with BMI over30 kg/m2 did not vary to a significant range from data in persons with normal body weight. Conclusions: Vitamin D status among the adolescents in Ukraine is far from optimum. Our results confirm reliable association between cholecalciferol level and BMI in persons with overweight. Interchange between conservation of vitamin D and BMI needs additional surveys.

Open access

Alfredo Briones-Aranda, Manuela Castellanos-Pérez and Raquel Gómez-Pliego

Abstract

Background and aims: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is currently a public health emergency that requires inter- and multidisciplinary medical services. The principal aim of the present work was to review the basic factors related to the possible advantages of providing early psychological attention to T2DM patients as a coadjuvant for achieving adequate metabolic control.

Material and methods: A literature review was conducted to explore the interaction between stress and depression and the relation of both to the ability of T2DM patients to effectively manage their disease. Results: It was found that stress is one of the factors linked to the etiology of depression, which is a disorder with high prevalence in diabetic patients. Consequently, an inter- and multidisciplinary approach to treating diabetic patients was developed. One of the main focuses of this approach is early psychological attention, starting shortly after the initial diagnosis.

Conclusions: The ability to create consciousness among health care professionals about the importance of early psychological attention for T2DM patients under an inter- and multidisciplinary strategy could possibly improve pharmacological adherence, metabolic control, the quality of life and the life expectancy of patients, as well as save economic resources for patient families and health institutions.

Open access

Oana-Andreea Parlițeanu and Dan Mircea Cheța

Abstract

Background and aims: The primary objective is to evaluate the possible relationship between Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) and Hashimoto Thyroiditis (HT), since the only correlation described until now is between Type 1 Diabetes and HT based on the autoimmune mechanism. The secondary end-point is to evaluate if there is a correlation between the characteristics of Type 2 Diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis and if the metabolic component may be a factor of association.

Material and method: We designed a retrospective, observational research, enrolling patients from “Sanamed” Hospital from Bucharest. Between 2016 and 2017 in our clinic a number of 150 patients were enrolled, in the following groups: 50 only with T2DM, 50 only with HT and 50 with both T2DM and HT.

Results: The main observations of the study were the following: the prevalence of obesity was higher in patients with T2DM (p<0.001) than in the group with HT (p<0.001); Dyslipidemia was higher in the HT group (p<0.001) than in the group of T2DM (p<0.001); Ischemic cardiac disease was more frequent in the HT group (p<0.001) than in the Diabetes group (p<0.001); in the group that had both T2DM and HT, the HbA1c was correlated with pre-existing Thyroid pathology (p<0.001), also Dyslipidemia was associated with hepatic steatosis (p<0.001).

Conclusions: After assessing all the parameters we have reached the conclusion that there is an association between the characteristics of T2DM and HT, as well as an interaction between these two diseases, considering their metabolic component.

Open access

Luciana Goguţă, Diana Lungeanu and Anca Jivănescu

Abstract

Background and aims: The aim of this study was to find out which was the impact of the treatment with removable dentures on the satisfaction of the type 2 diabetes patients.

Material and method: 50 patients, 27 females (54%) and 23 males (46%) were included in the study. 37 were treated by using a partial removable denture and 13 were receiving a complete denture. Each patient included in the study had answered to a questionnaire after the first year of wearing the dentures and the blood glycemic level and the salivary flux were assessed. Chi-square test was applied to investigate the statistical significance of observed differences in proportions. Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare distributions across the groups.

Results The age of the enrolled patients was between 40 and 85 years, with a mean of 64.3 years (standard deviation = 9.77). The mean values of the glucose levels were decreasing proportional with the age of the patients until 85 years and were inconstant for the group 81-90 years. The saliva at 5min was significantly decreasing with the age (p<0.001). The most satisfied patients with the removable dentures were in the group 61-70 years.

Conclusions: The prosthodontic treatment of the type -2 diabetic patients with removable denture should be started after stabilizing the blood glycemic levels and treating the xerostomia, when present.

Open access

Maria-Magdalena Roșu and Maria Moța

Abstract

Background and aims: PREDATORR is a national study designed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, prediabetes, overweight, obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease in Romanian adult population. The aim of present study was to estimate the prevalence, incidence, treatment and control in subjects from PREDATORR study.

Material and methods: This study included 2727 adults aged 20 – 79 years. Subjects were examined, and three measurements were performed at a time of at least one minute and the mean of blood pressure readings was recorded. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive drug therapy.

Results: The prevalence of hypertension in Romanian adult population aged 20 – 79 years was 47.38% and was higher in men: 48.62% than women: 46.23%. The incidence of hypertension was: 10.7% in 20 – 39 years age group, 43.1% in 40 – 59 years age group and 75.1% in subjects aged ≥ 60 years. Among subjects with hypertension, 18.7% did not receive antihypertensive drug therapy, 27.7% received antihypertensive treatment in monotherapy, 34.7% were under double antihypertensive drugs and most of them (37.6%) received three or more antihypertensive drugs.

Conclusions: The prevalence of hypertension in Romania is high, possible explanations of this might be the unhealthy lifestyle and diet.

Open access

Bondar Andrei-Cristian and Popa Amorin-Remus

Abstract

It is known that the aged persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus present a high risk for developing neurocognitive disorders and in order to explain this phenomenon we have proposed some potential risk factors. They can be involved in the causality patterns or can act as useful markers of the cerebrovascular lesions (or both) and for which there are strong proofs, including the poor glycemic control, hypoglycemia, microvascular diseases, inflammation or depression. For the macrovascular affections, the association with the cognitive disorders seems to devolve on the examined vascular system. It is put into discussion that for the next researches it is important to analyze how exactly the interrelations between the risk factors can contribute to cognitive disorders.

Open access

Luthfia Dewi, Mohammad Sulchan and Kisdjamiatun

Abstract

Background and aims: Quercetin belonging flavonoid has a role to improve diabetic condition. Research aimed to examine and to compare Cape Gooseberry (CG) juice and quercetin supplement on Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and adiponectin level of high fat diet-Streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) induced rat.

Material and method: CG juice 5 ml/kg/d (X1) and 25 ml/kg/d (X2) groups; and quercetin supplement 2.2 mg/kg/d (X3) and 30 mg/kg/d (X4) groups were compared with both of positive (K+) and negative (K-) control. Treatments were given by orally gavage for 28 days to 36 Wistar rats which each group consisted of 6 rats. TAC and adiponectin level were measured by ABTS and ELISA method respectively.

Results: There was significantly increase of TAC in treatment groups compared with K(+) (p<0.05). X2 had TAC level significantly higher than X1 (p=0.025). Moreover, adiponectin level of treatment groups were significantly higher than K(+) (p<0.05). Furthermore, X2 had adiponectin level significantly higher than X3 (p<0.001).

Conclusion: CG juice 25 ml/kg/d presented better effect than CG juice 5 ml/kg/d, although quercetin 30 mg/kg/d showed the best effects toward both of TAC and adiponectin.

Open access

Gholamreza Pouryaghoub, Ramin Mehrdad and Mohammad Mehraban

Abstract

Background and aims: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a collection of metabolic risk factors including increased waist circumference (WC), elevated blood pressure (BP), increased triglyceride (TG), decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and increased fasting blood sugar (FBS). We aimed to examine the relevance between the MetS and its components with reduced lung functions in adult men.

Material and method: A total of 3899 adult men underwent screening examination between 2015-2016 in a cross-sectional survey.

Results: The mean (± SD) age of our population was 37.25 (± 4.9) years. The overall prevalence of MetS was 7.6%. The total prevalence of reduced lung function in men with MetS was 13.8%. The most common type of reduced lung function was the restrictive pattern (7.1%). The forced expiratory volume of first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) values were significantly lower in men with MetS (both p<0.001). Also these values were significantly lower in diabetic men compared to non-diabetics and those with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). WC and HDL were the most potent predictors of reduced FEV1 and FVC.

Conclusions: We obtained a positive independent association between MetS and reduced lung function in adult men which may be related mainly due to increased WC and decreased HDL.