Residential complexes are an inherent element of the Lublin province’s cultural landscape. Currently, the register of Lublin’s heritage monuments conservator lists 143 palaces and villas, and 146 manor houses. The condition of these buildings varies, which is the result of the way they were utilized after WW2. The article presents selected palace- -park complexes and manor-house/park complexes in the province of Lublin. The author explains the terminology and classification of residential complexes. The study also describes the history, spatial arrangement, transformations, and the present-day condition of the selected palace-park complexes and manor-house/park complexes in the Lublin region. The author also took into account the structures accompanying residential complexes, which are their integral part and functional complement. Special attention was paid to design patterns of garden art developed both in Poland and abroad.
The anonymous motet a cappella Exsultate gaudete laeti omnes preserved in manuscript, catalogue no. Kk I 1, in the Archives of the Krakow Cathedral Chapter, recorded by the provost of the Rorantists’ Capella, Józef Tadeusz Benedykt Pȩkalski in the mid18th century, is an extremely intriguing composition as far as the question of its author is concerned. This work exhibits many ties and even overt similarities with the style of an eminent representative of the Polish Baroque, Grzegorz Gerwazy Gorczycki (1665/67-1734). The analysis presented in this article reveals the features that clearly link the anonymous motet with the musical language of this composer (evident inter alia in the melodic pattern, texture, and harmonics) without omitting other elements at the same time, those that would not support Gorczycki’s authorship. Thus, although in light of the whole of the observed phenomena Gorczycki’s authorship appears probable, there is no conclusive argument to attribute it to him. Despite the absence of a final conclusion that would clearly settle the matter, the author of the study decided to publish the motet together with its analysis, hoping that another scholar might find some overlooked detail, or encounter helpful concordance, etc, which will allow us to definitively confirm, or, on the contrary, to rule out Gorczycki’s authorship.
The two-part article Time in Film (Part I. Cinematograph and Modernity, Part II Transformation of Cinematograph into Cinema) is a kind of survey, with the author’s comment, of the most important philosophical and film-studies conceptions which investigate this subject. Film time is examined in two principal aspects: as time arising from the possibility of recording reality by the camera and transforming it (reality) into moving pictures (the film-reality relation), and as time connected with a film’s narrative capabilities (the film-spectator relation). The discussion on this subject is accompanied by a belief in the rich and surprising possibilities of transforming time by man (the creator and the spectator), which film affords. This determines the mental qualities of film time, which should be examined in close relationship to human temporality.
Part two of the article (Przemiana kinematografu w kino [The Transformation of cinematograph into cinema) discusses the issues concerning film time from the perspective of the film-spectator relationship. The study also presents the problems of narrative time and the influence that narrative time exerts on the spectator’s mental sphere. According to Edgar Morin, cinema above all reflects man’s mental links with the world. A great advantage of cinema is the ability to make the past the present and, as it were, to spatialize time. The feature film is capable of creating surprising transformations of time, thereby approximating the human, subjective sense of time, which is fully revealed during sleep. The similarity between film and dream was also the subject of interesting discussions by the Polish film critic Konrad Eberhardt. In his book Film jest snem [Film is dream] he presents his reflections on the links between film and dream and analyses film oneirism using the examples of selected works by the most eminent directors. In contrast, Étienne Souriau, a French aesthetician, made a fundamental distinction between two basic levels of film time: filmophanic presentation (duration of a film show) and the film world (diegetic time). He also pointed out that time manipulations largely enable the rise of new film reality, and significantly influence the audience’s emotions. The article then discusses the differing interpretations of film time proposed by the French linguists Christian Metz and Roland Barthes, and phenomenologist Maurice Merleau- Ponty. The study concludes with an extensive presentation of the film time theory developed the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze.
The article gives a detailed account of his concept of the history of cinema, which is based on the analysis of transformations of narrative time forms. Its two extreme poles are “cinema: movement-image” and “cinema: time-image”. Deuleze argues that the contemporary model of “cinema: movement-image”, exemplified by works e.g. of Alaine Resnais, the French New Wave, Orson Welles, Federico Fellini, and others, evokes mental time: the time of remembrance, mental images, hallucinations, and dreams. According to Deleuze, films create virtual reality, highly approximating the one which another French philosopher Henri Bergson called “pure consciousness” (duration).
Mieczysława Karłowicz’s literary output can be divided into autonomous (i.e. functioning independently) and non-autonomous (i.e. subordinated to particular musical works as their conceptual and expressive basis). The first group covers six articles about the Tatras and seven minor notes published in the tourist press in 1895-1909, reviews and reports from the concert life in Berlin of 1896, 1897, and 1905; four polemical- -journalistic articles concerning musical life in Warsaw, and four musicological/documentation publications, its culmination being apparently a humorous-grotesque story Orfeum Warszawskie w roku 1910 [Warsaw Orpheum in 1910]. Two articles should be added, which are devoted to outstanding Berlin music teachers who contributed to Polish culture (a remembrance of H. Urban and the text devoted to Karl Friedrich Rungenhagen), as well as reviews of the singing handbooks authored by Teofil Kowalski and Feliks Konopasek. The non-autonomous publications comprise literary programs: symphonic prologue Bianka z Moleny [Bianca of Molena], Symphony E-minor Odrodzenie [Rebirth] and a symphonic poem Powracaja̧ce fale [The Returning waves]. The program of the poem Stanisław i Anna Oświecimowie was published after the composer’s death in 1912, while the program of Smutna opowieść [A Sad tale] was published in the form of an impression from the press interview.
Karłowicz’s literary output is in a way an aesthetic “complement” to his musical achievements: it presents these characteristics of the composer’s complex personality that were not revealed in music, or, as for example his sense of humor, were shown only marginally. Owing to the literary program of his musical poems we know that Karłowicz utilized music to express sublime themes oscillating on the verge of philosophical reflections, and truths about the depths of human psyche, which were at the same time the truths about himself: about the sphere of his most personal experience, emotions, reflections and dreams. This range of themes and motifs, metaphors and literary expressions that we meet in the verbal comments to the symphonic poems, fully expresses the neo-romantic (Young-Poland-trend) character of Karłowicz’s non-autonomous literary creations. The scope of influence of Polish literary modernism on the composer is specific and incomplete at the same time: the dominant theme area is characteristic of the poetry of the then most popular representative of neo-romantic (Young-Poland) literature - Kazimierz Przerwa Tetmajer. Selected already in Karłowicz’s song period and suited to his imagination, the Tetmajer themes and motifs would be continued in his mature symphonic creations. In contrast, in his autonomous literary creations Karłowicz was able to express the traits of his personality that go, as it were, “outside” the private sphere” of his dreams, recollections, and emotions.. That is why in this part of literary creations the influence of neo-romantic aesthetics diminishes, being replaced by devices more characteristic of Polish positivism. Consequently, in his articles about the Tatras, relationships with Tetmajer’s rhetoric appear only in passages containing descriptions of nature and at the moments of personal reflections, particularly philosophical ones. Orfeum Warszawskie, anticipating the grotesque and satirical tendencies as well as prophetic, disturbing literary visions characteristic of the interwar period (in particular of S. I. Witkiewicz), demonstrates the aspects of Karłowicz’s personality that were reflected only in some of his letters.
Karłowicz’s whole literary output confirms certain characteristic features of his composing style and his creative aesthetics. His works manifest his excellent sense of form as a whole, the ability to subordinate detail to the general dramatic outline, or the use of distinctive contrasts. Karłowicz’s musical and literary discourse is lively, devoid of longeurs and hesitations, at the same time being clear and lucid. Moreover, reviews, journey reports, and Orfeum Warszawskie give us an interesting insight in the composer’s musical preferences, his attitude towards tradition, and his understanding of modernity in music.
Many years of research on the musical past of 16th- and 17th-century Slovakia recently uncovered new facts that demonstrate that there were intense contacts between Spiš and Silesia. These relationships pertain first of all to religious music played in Evangelical churches.
The evidence of musical contacts between Spiš and Silesia in the 16th century is the choirbook (with only the tenor voice extant) from the high school library in Kežmarok (Hungarian Késmárk, German Käsmark, Kesmark). This relic contains many similarities with the content of music manuscripts from Wrocław (inter alia the works of composers Jacobus Gallus [Handl], Jacobus Le Maistre, or Michele Varotto), as well as compositions by the Silesian composer and intellectual, Martin Kinner von Scherffenstein.
Starting from the late 16th and early 17th centuries far more musical pieces were preserved in Spiš. Worth noting among them is the music collection from Levoča (Hungarian Löcse, German Leutschau). This collection comprises both manuscripts (tablatures, choirbooks), and music prints. Silesian traces can be also found here, inter alia in the form of entries by Johann Plotz of Brzeg (Brieg) and many repertoire similarities with the then contemporary manuscripts and music prints from Wrocław.
In the 17th century Spiš and Silesia were also connected by direct personal contacts of musicians, other artists, and intellectuals. For example, the Silesian musician Daniel Speer, and the pastor Lucas Wencelius of Bielsko (Bielitz), Cieszyn Silesia, stayed in Spiš for some time.
“Transit” playing or playing “transit” music comes from one of the names of a musical piece called “transit” (przejazdowy), which was played by folk musicians while the wedding procession moved from one house to another. The term transit playing should be treated in a conventional way, as music practice performed while moving in space by cart or on foot, and as stationary playing music in the place to which it was necessary to move.
Folkloristic situations conducive to transit playing can be classified according to the criteria adopted for folk rites. This makes it possible to follow the intensity of occurrence of this musical practice during the ritual year, from singing carols to the harvest festival, and in family rites such as wedding and funeral. The article shows the rites and customs during which transit music playing is practiced most often.
In the Lublin region, until the outbreak of WW2, the most popular caroling rite during Christmas period was the custom of door-to-door visits by boys carrying the Star of Bethlehem. Some of them played musical instruments (the fiddle, or drum), which also suited the needs of the wedding practices of the time. At Easter time, on Holy Saturday, there was a well-known custom of “drumming” and Easter caroling visits. The practice of playing music while covering some distance was also applied in a number of formal situations. The musicians, whether individually or within a band or orchestra, marked their position in a particular social group by participating in religious processions, marches, ceremonial processions, pilgrimages, and or harvest festivals. Their function was to perform instrumental repertoire, to accompany or play along with singing, while at the same time displaying their own folk costumes and musical instruments. Among family rituals one should mention the participation of folk musicians in funeral ceremonies (which is still frequently practiced). When the coffin has been laid in the grave, musical pieces are usually played at the deceased’s explicit request or according to what is known about his preferences. However, transit playing is strongly associated first of all with wedding ceremonies. The rich wedding ceremony contributed to the emergence of a wide range of instrumental music forms played while covering the distances from one house to another. Apart from firmly established two-part marches, these are three- -beat pieces, inter alia podróżniak, powiślak, majdaniak, suwak, krowiarz, buracarz.
The themes of the four elements - with their extremely rich symbolism - have been taken up by many artists. The forming of knowledge about nature, initiated already in the ancient times, resulted in the four-component conception of the elements, which distinguished earth, water, air and fire. These elements aroused and shaped the imagination of many artists and composers. After all, fire means warmth and light but also conflagration and destruction; water keeps one alive but it also floods; wind in turn revives but it also causes devastation; similarly, earth is the mother of all riches, but at the same time it hides destructive forces that lie dormant in its mysterious interior.
he present article discusses the problems of inspiration by the element of water, found in musical pieces and in plastic arts; at the same time it places the subject matter so defined in the perspective of correspondence and integration of arts. The study presents the analysis of the problems of inspiration by the water element in reference, inter alia, to the relationships and parallels occurring between the sphere of architecture and music, and to the subject matter of the river, sea and ocean present in painting and music, occasionally taking achievements in sculpture and literature into consideration. The principal object of observation was music. Therefore, the works of the following composers have been discussed: Ottorino Respighi, Francisco Tarrega, Karol Szymanowski, Bedřich Smetana, Nikołaj Rimsky-Korsakov, Claude Debussy, and Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis. The present study is first of all a contribution to interdisciplinary education, being chiefly meant for music teachers.
The subject of the article is a debut short film Un Chien andalou (The Andalusian Dog) made in 1929 by the Spanish director Luis Buñuel with collaboration of the artist Salvador Dali. This film, regarded as the main work of surrealist cinema, is one of those few masterpieces of experimental cinema that received a lively reception of the wide audience. Critics even accorded him the name of the best-known short film in history.
This was a work entirely different from what had been made before: “the densest and the most puzzling seventeen minutes in the history of cinema” showing intense, vivid pictures but at the same time fragmentary and ambiguous, and hard to understand. A detailed interpretation of the content is difficult if possible at all. From the beginning, however, there was agreement about the general message of the film. It was read as the projection of consciousness, full of iconoclastic, delirious pictures with inspirations verging on obsessive-compulsive disorders. The ecstatic visions were interpreted, in accordance with the authors’ intentions, as revelations attacking the empty rites of tradition and challenging the dogmas of the “logic” of the existing world order. The timeless value of the film does not consist in Buñuel’s new view of the world, because the edge of the once iconoclastic meaning the work has become blunted with time, abut in the use of film as a medium of communication utilized in a new, revolutionary way. The Andalusian Dog is not a representation of dream images or it does not tell daydreams as this used to be before. Nor the dream sequences are a figure of speech in the classic film narrative called “dream sequence”. The permanent value of The Andalusian Dog consists in that this motion picture is the first film simulation of dreaming while sleeping, evoking sensations close to experiencing an actual dream.
The article discusses mutually complementary issues. These are, inter alia, the synergy of sound and projection of moving pictures; The Andalusian Dog and total art; The Andalusian Dog as an instrument of introspection; dream as a method of creation; The Andalusian Dog and psychic automatism; distillation of dreams; The Andalusian Dog among art disciplines; the open work of art; The Andalusian Dog - the composed sleep. All these themes and aspects set this work in the twentieth-century paradigms, which ensures its effective impact even today. Owing to this we are “immersed” in the film and allow full play to fantasy: perhaps this makes us wiser…
In the 21st century, music culture has become one of the basic fields of the functionality of digital media, while the latter have become its important element. By thoroughly transforming music culture in technical and psychosocial, or in quantitative and qualitative terms, at the levels of music production, distribution, and consumption, the digital media have at the same time re-shaped the relations between this culture and its recipients, and established news patterns of participation in it.
Seeking to answer the questions about the character of participation in music culture in the age of the digital media, the author examines, first, the impact of these media on participation in culture and on music culture itself. Second, in order to obtain as full a picture as possible of participation in music culture in the digital media age, he refers to the empirical data collected, analyzed and presented in two research reports devoted to participation in culture (including music culture) in the digital media age.
The conducted analyses show a fairly complex picture of participation in music culture because, shaped by technological innovations and affordances, the new type of activity of participants in music culture is not uniform. However, the author notices two distinct tendencies in it: a tendency to prefer old, institutionalized forms of participation albeit with the use of the digital media; and a tendency to favor new, de-institutionalized forms developed in the digital environment. They allow the researcher to outline a fundamental dichotomy (because it essentially reflects deeper cultural-technological discrepancies) between participation in music culture and the music culture of participation. The author culminates his discussion with the conclusion, in which he briefly considers the potential consequences of the emergence of digitally mediated participation in music culture.
The collection of Pensieri adriarmonici by the Italian composer Giacomo Facco (1676-1753) has not been studied in detail to date. When the composer published it in two books in 1716 and 1719, he had already worked for the Spanish Crown for twenty years. By introducing a reference to the Adriatic on the title page and by calling himself Musico Veneto, Facco in a way confirmed the connection of the twelve concertos in the collection with the musical tradition of his native Venice. A comparative analysis shows a genuine, close affinity between Pensieri adriarmonici and the Venetian concerto com- positions by Tomaso Albinoni, Antonio Vivaldi, Benedetto Marcello, Giorgio Gentili and Giulio Taglietti in respect of performers, the form and type of performing of concerts, and even the melody of themes.