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Molecular Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Anaplasma Spp. in Cattle in Al-Qadisiyah Province of Iraq

Abstract

Anaplasma spp. are widely spread rickettsial bacteria transmitted by ticks and placing high impacts on veterinary and public health. A limited number of studies have been carried out on Anaplasmosis in the central part of Iraq. This study was conducted to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp. in cattle in Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq. A total of 400 blood specimens were collected from cattle suffering from heavy tick infestation. Cattle were blood-sampled from four hyper-endemic areas with ticks. Blood samples were screened using microscopic and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Diff-quick stained blood smears revealed Anaplasma-like inclusion bodies in 254 (63.5%) samples. According to the 16S rRNA-gene-based PCR analysis, Anaplasma spp. was detected in 124 of the 400 (31%) samples, divided as 96/254 (37.8%) among the microscopical positive samples and 28/146 (19.17%) among the microscopical negative samples. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing of ten-PCR positive samples were 99–97% identical to sequences deposited in the GenBank, revealing presence of A. phagocytophilum, A. marginale and unnamed Anaplasma spp. in 40%, 20%, and 40% samples, respectively. Relationships among Anaplasma spp. infections and cattle breed, age, and sex were analyzed. Calves less than one year old showed significantly higher rates (p<0.005) than those from other age groups, whereas sex and breed demonstrated no significant differences (p˃0.001). This study shows that a variety of Anaplasma spp., were endemic in central part of Iraq and is still a hidden problem in cattle in the hyperendemic areas of tick, which requires serious control strategies.

Open access
Morphology, Morphometry and Histogenesis of the Prenatal Dromedary (Camelus Dromedarius) Spleen

Abstract

Prenatal gross morphologic, morphometric and histologic developmental features of the dromedary spleen were studied. The dromedary gestation period (13 months) was categorized into four (1-4) phases and ten developing spleens per growth phase were sampled. Splenic topographical anatomy was noted before being eviscerated from each foetus. Morphologic and morphometric features of the eviscerated spleens were immediately documented and 2 – 4 mm thick samples were collected for histological analysis. The developing spleen was dark brown in colour, semilunar shaped and significantly increased (p<0.05) in size and weight across the four phases of prenatal development. The full-term dromedary spleen was observed to have unique histological features. Its capsule had an inner smooth muscle and an outer predominant connective tissue layer. The pumping of stored blood from the muscular capsule and trabeculae was proportionate to the body’s requirement. The splenic venous return was characterized by blood flow from the red pulp (venous sinusoids) to the peritrabecular sinuses, subcapsular sinuses and finally to the splenic veins. The dromedary has a sinusal type of spleen and has both open and closed types of circulation. The presence of closed circulation and absence of marginal sinus could be the reason for dromedary main health problems of blood parasites; Trypanosoma evansi. It was concluded that most of the salient features of the postnatal spleen were already evident in the first growth phase and became developed by the second phase. Other growth phases were mainly characterized by increase in sizes.

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Outcomes of pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with obstructive jaundice with and without preoperative biliary drainage: a retrospective observational study

Abstract

Background

Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with obstructive jaundice from periampullary neoplasms may reduce the untoward effects of biliary obstruction and subsequent postoperative complications. However, PBD is associated with bile contamination and increases infectious complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).

Objectives

To determine whether PBD is associated with more complications after PD.

Methods

Patients with obstructive jaundice from periampullary lesions who underwent PD from 2000 to 2015 at our institution were retrospectively enrolled. The cohort was divided into a group with PBD and a group without. PBD was performed using one of the following methods: endoprosthesis, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, surgical biliary-enteric bypass, or T-tube choledochostomy. PDs were performed by the first author using uniform surgical techniques. Postoperative complications were recorded. Statistical analyses were conducted using an unpaired t, Fisher exact, or chi-squared tests as appropriate.

Results

There were 26 with PBD and 28 patients without. Patients in the 2 groups were similar in age, presenting serum bilirubin level, operative time, operative blood transfusion, and hospital stay. The group with PBD had longer duration of jaundice, more patients presenting with cholangitis, and more patients with carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. The overall complications were higher in patients in the group with PBD than in the group without.

Conclusions

PBD was associated with more complications overall after PD. However, PBD was necessary and lifesaving in certain clinical situations and improved the condition of patients before they underwent PD. Routine PBD in patients with obstructive jaundice without definite indications is not recommended.

Open access
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Sodium glycerophosphate and prescribed calcium concentrations in pediatric parenteral nutrition: a retrospective observational study and economic evaluation

Abstract

Background

The risk of precipitation limits calcium and phosphate concentrations that can be administered parenterally to pediatric patients. As an alternative to dipotassium phosphate, sodium glycerophosphate (NaGlyP) is claimed to reduce the risk of precipitation in solutions for parenteral administration.

Objectives

To determine the calcium concentrations, NaGlyP, and dipotassium phosphate prescribed in pediatric parenteral nutrition orders and the cost–benefit of the organic phosphate.

Methods

We retrospectively collected cross-sectional data for parenteral nutrition orders from September 2014 to August 2015 for pediatric patients including neonates and children aged <18 years who were admitted to King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Calcium concentration, calcium concentration adjustments, and costs of phosphate used per bag were analyzed.

Results

Of 2,192 parenteral nutrition orders, NaGlyP was used in 2,128 (97.1%) with calcium concentrations in the range of 0.84–139.91 mmol/L, which were significantly higher than calcium concentrations used with dipotassium phosphate (0.00–12.21 mmol/L, P < 0.001). There was no report of visible precipitation. Median costs of NaGlyP and dipotassium phosphate used per unit bag were not significantly different (35.88 and 41.25 Thai baht [THB] or 1.04 and 1.20 USD per bag, respectively, P>0.99; (1 USD equivalent to 34.241 THB U.S. Federal Reserve Bank G5.A annual average rate 2015).

Conclusions

Higher calcium concentrations could be achieved without increasing the direct cost per unit bag significantly as a result of using NaGlyP, an alternative to dipotassium phosphate as a source of phosphate for patients who require high amounts of calcium in parenteral nutrition.

Open access
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in Abdominal Fluid in Dogs with Oncological and Non-Oncological Diseases

Abstract

The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a multifunctional cytokine stimulating the growth of vascular endothelial cells, survival and proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis. It is one of the most potent stimulants of vascular permeability. VEGF is found at high levels in inflammatory and tumour-associated pleural and abdominal effusions and is involved in their occurrence. In the present study, the blood plasma and abdominal fluid VEGF levels were assayed in thirty-one client-owned dogs with neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The VEGF concentration in abdominal fluid of dogs (n=6) with ascites was 190.70±34.35 pg/ml, in dogs (n=6) with peritonitis: 1449.81±365.42 pg/ml and in dogs (n=9) with tumour-associated effusion: 1993.13±202.56 pg/ml. Blood plasma VEGF of healthy dogs (control group, n=10) was 36.79±5.72 pg/ml, in dogs with ascites: 57.92±2.88 pg/ml, in dogs with peritonitis: 76.98±7.24 pg/ml and in dogs with tumour-associated effusion: 173.50±40.9 pg/ml. There were substantial differences between blood plasma and abdominal fluid VEGF levels.

Open access
21st Century era of anatomy
Open access
Anatomy of the vasculature supplying hepatobiliary structures and celiac trunk branching patterns in the Thai population

Abstract

Background

Knowledge of the anatomy of the celiac trunk (CT) and arterial supply of the hepatobiliary system is essential for surgical and interventional radiological treatment of upper abdominal diseases.

Objectives

To determine the branching patterns of the CT and variation in origin and type of the right hepatic artery (RHA), left hepatic artery (LHA), and cystic artery (CA).

Methods

The anatomy of the CT in 100 cadavers from Thai adult donors was observed in 3 aspects: its branching pattern, the origin of the RHA and LHA, and the origin of the CA and its relation to the common bile duct (CBD) and common hepatic duct (CHD).

Results

The majority of the CT branching pattern was categorized as the type II classical pattern, which has 3 branches: the left gastric artery (LGA), splenic artery (SA), and common hepatic artery (CHA). The RHA branched from proper hepatic artery in 67 cadavers. The origin of the accessory RHA was either from the abdominal aorta or superior mesenteric artery (SMA), whereas the replaced RHA originated from the CHA, SMA, or CT. The accessory LHA ramified from CHA (2 cases) and LGA (1 case). The replaced LHA was found in 30 cadavers and 29 arose from the CHA. The single and double types of CA were found in 94 and 4 cadavers, respectively. In all, 57% of single CA passed posteriorly and 39% passed anteriorly to the CBD and CHD.

Conclusions

To lower posttreatment complications, variations in the anatomy and the vascular supply of hepatobiliary structures should be considered.

Open access
Behavioral and histopathological studies of cervical spinal cord contusion injury in rats caused by an adapted weight-drop device

Abstract

Background

Models of spinal cord injury (SCI) caused by weight-drop devices to cause contusion have been used extensively, and transient behavioral deficits after thoracic injury have been demonstrated. The severity of the injury caused by the device should be mild enough to allow recovery.

Objective

To determine whether our adapted weight-drop device with a small tip can effectively induce mild hemicontusion at the level of the fifth cervical vertebra.

Methods

We divided 15 adult male Sprague Dawley rats into groups of 5 for the following treatments: sham (SH, laminectomy only), mild (MSCI) or severe SCI (SSCI). Behavioral tests and histopathology were used before (day 1) and after the treatment on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 to assess the injury.

Results

Rats with SSCI showed a significant somatosensory deficit on days 3 and 7 compared with rats in the SH group, recovering by day 14. In a horizontal-ladder test of skilled locomotion, rats with SSCI showed a significant increase in error scores and percentage of total rungs used, and a decrease in the percentage of correct paw placement compared with rats in the SH group. There was greater recovery to normal paw placement by rats with MSCI than by rats with SSCI. These behavioral deficits were consistent with histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin counterstained Luxol fast blue, indicating the degree of injury and lesion area.

Conclusions

Mild hemicontusion caused by the adapted device can be used to evaluate SCI and provides a model with which to test the efficacy of translational therapies for SCI.

Open access
Changes in sperm quality and testicular structure in a rat model of type 1 diabetes

Abstract

Background

Chronic hyperglycemia is a characteristic of diabetes mellitus (DM). Long-lasting hyperglycemia can generate oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species. The effect of this condition on sperm quality and spermatogenesis leads to male infertility and reproductive dysfunction.

Objectives

To investigate changes in sperm quality, morphology of testicular structure, and stage of development of seminiferous tubules in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat model of type 1 DM.

Methods

We divided 15 male Sprague Dawley rats into 2 groups. DM was induced in 7 rats using STZ (60 mg/kg intraperitoneally), while the other 8 were treated with citrate buffer as a vehicle control group. Rat semen was collected for quality measurements including motility, normal morphology, and concentration. Morphological changes in testicular structure and stage of development of seminiferous tubules were investigated by histology with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining.

Results

Significant decreases in all parameters of sperm quality and testicular weight were found in rats with induced DM. Moreover, abnormal morphology of seminiferous tubules including separation of the germinal epithelium, vacuolization, luminal sloughing of germ cells, and tubular atrophy was increased significantly in these rats, while the proportion of their seminiferous tubules at an early stage of development was significantly higher, but was dramatically decreased in the late stage of development when compared with that in vehicle-treated control rats.

Conclusions

DM has adverse effects on sperm quality, testicular structure, and development of seminiferous tubules. These findings may reflect the male infertility and reproductive dysfunction seen in patients with type 1 DM.

Open access