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Open access

Peter-Damian Chukwunomso Jiwuba, Ifeanyi Princewill Ogbuewu, Elisha Dauda and Caritas Chibuike Azubuike

Abstract

The responses of 96 day old broilers fed Chromolaena odorata leaf meal (COLM) on blood profile and gut microbial load were studied for 49 days. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatment groups and replicated three times in a completely randomized design. The birds were fed four experimental diets formulated at 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% for the starter phase and 0%, 4%, 8% and 12% of COLM at the finisher phase for T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. All the haematological parameters were similar (P>0.05) across the treatment groups except MCH and WBC which were significantly (P< 0.05) higher and better in the treatment groups than the control group. The results on serum chemistry showed significant (P<0.05) difference for total protein, albumin, creatinine and cholesterol across the treatment groups. Cholesterol was significantly (P<0.05) reduced with increasing levels of COLM. Results showed that coliforms and E.coli were consistently higher (P<0.05) among the T1 birds than those fed T2, T3 and T4. It was concluded that, COLM enhanced adequate haematocrit and immune status, hypoglycaemic ability, suppresses the growth of gut pathogenic microorganisms and enhanced the growth of beneficial microorganism in broilers.

Open access

Zengye Shi

Abstract

In recent years, with the frequent occurrence of food safety problems, people have begun to pay attention to food safety, especially the food safety of hotels. This paper proposed a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) management system to analyze food safety issues of hotels in order to improve the food quality and safety in hotel management. Through the practical application of the HACCP management system in the hotel catering industry, it was found that the amount of bacteria greatly reduced and the pass rate of tableware disinfection increased significantly in the hotel's food processing links, while customer satisfaction greatly improved. Therefore, the HACCP management system had great applicability in improving the food quality and safety of hotels.

Open access

Kangru Qi, He Chen, Hongchang Wan, Man Hu and Yuxi Wu

Abstract

High quality probiotic powder can lay the foundation for the commercial production of functional dairy products. The freeze-drying method was used for the preservation of microorganisms, having a deleterious effect on the microorganisms viability. In order to reduce the damage to probiotics and to improve the survival rate of probiotics during freeze-drying, the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was adopted in this research to optimize lyoprotectant composed of amino acids (glycine, arginine) and salts (NaHCO3 and ascorbic acid). Probiotic used was Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01. The regression model (p<0.05) was obtained by Box–Behnken experiment design, indicating this model can evaluate the freeze-drying survival rate of B. bifidum BB01 under different lyoprotectants. The results indicated these concentrations as optimal (in W/V): glycine 4.5%, arginine 5.5%, NaHCO3 0.8% and ascorbic acid 2.3%, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the survival rate of lyophilized powder of B. bifidum BB01 was significantly increased by 80.9% compared to the control group (6.9±0.62%), the results were agreement with the model prediction value (88.7%).

Open access

Weimei Zhang

Abstract

On the basis of establishing an input-output index system of listed food companies’ social responsibility, this paper uses the DEA model to assess 22 Chinese listed food companies’ social responsibility efficiency between 2014 and 2016. Results show that the social responsibility efficiency of Chinese listed food companies is generally lower and the average of the 22 companies is only 0.665. The social responsibility management in 81.80% of listed food companies is in a relatively ineffective state. There is a big room for improvement. In addition, the social responsibility efficiencies of listed companies with different sizes are quite different. The social responsibility efficiency of large-sized listed food company is obviously higher than that of the small and medium-sized. The study also shows that the social responsibility efficiencies of most listed food companies are in the stage of increasing returns to scale and more input would be necessary in order to achieve higher efficiency.

Open access

Yunfeng Hu, Zengyu Wei and Yuanyuan Chen

Abstract

In this paper, the quality changes of fresh dumpling wrappers during storage were studied by measuring the changes of microbial growth, color, pH, texture, cooking property, moisture content and distribution of raw dumpling wrappers. The correlation of these indicators was analyzed. The results showed that the dumpling wrappers had generated lots of microorganisms during storage and the pH value decreased gradually. The dumpling wrappers had browning and the color became darker. The texture of the dumpling wrappers changed obviously. The original structure of raw dumpling wrappers were destroyed, the water distribution is uneven and migration to the surface. The apparent index of raw dumpling wrappers has a significant correlation with the internal change, which provides a certain guiding significance for maintaining the good quality of dumpling wrappers.

Open access

Fred Coolborn Akharaiyi and Obehi Betsy Ugberase

Abstract

Fruit juices are liable to spoilage as a result of fermentation by microorganisms. This study is intended to provide information on preservative of fruit juices with plant extracts. The preservative effects of Gmelina arborea fruit and Nauclea latifolia stem bark extracts in apple and pineapple juices were assessed in comparison to chemical preservative (sodium benzoate) as a positive control and refrigeration at 4 °C as a negative control measures. Decrease in microbial load during storage was observed in the prepared juice samples. G. arborea fruit extract in microbial inhibition was more potent followed by sodium benzoate and N. latifolia stem bark extract. G. arborea preserved juices were of better choice in sensory evaluation for acceptability than N. latifolia and sodium benzoate preserved juices. Phytochemical screened from the extracts are saponins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and steroids. The titratable acidity of the prepared juices evaluated G. arborea of lower titratable acidity value than N. latifolia. The results has provided a partial support for the use of G. arborea fruits and N. latifolia stem bark extracts for preservation of fruit juices. The use of N. latifolia and G. arborea as preservative agents have not been documented and could be potential sources of natural preservative agents for future use in preservation of alcoholic and non alcoholic beverages.

Open access

Yunxia He, He Chen, Zhangteng Lei, Jili Cao and Yuan Tan

Abstract

In this paper emulsifying effects of seven emulsifiers including Tween 80, Span 80, tripolyglycerol monostearate, sodium stearoyl lactylate, sucrose ester, soy lecithin and monoglyceride on phytosterol in milk were investigated using single factor test and fractional factorial design. The addition for seven emulsifiers were in the following concentrations: 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5% and 0.6%. The results revealed that tripolyglycerol monostearate, sucrose ester and monoglyceride had a significant emulsifying effect on phytosterol in milk, Tripolyglycerol monostearate showed a positive emulsifying effect on phytosterol in milk, while sucrose ester and monoglyceride exhibited a negative emulsifying effect on phytosterol in milk.

Open access

Olugbenga Olufemi Awolu and Eunice Yetunde Olokunsusi

Abstract

Nutritional quality and functional properties of composite flour consisting amaranth grain, bambara groundnut, carrot and rice bran flours were evaluated. The dependent variables were optimized using optimal mixture model of response surface methodology. Amaranth grain flour (70 – 80.75%), bambara groundnut flour (15-25%), carrot flour (2-5%) and rice bran (2-10%) were the independent variables. From the results, very high protein content (about 40%) was obtained when the bambara content inclusion was 25%. Bambara groundnut flour inclusion up to 15% also resulted in high protein contents (≤ 37%). Supplementation of the composite flour with high carrot flour content (up to 10%) also enhanced the protein content when the bambara groundnut content was low. High carrot flour inclusion had the highest positive effect on the crude fibre content (3.7-3.9%) followed by rice bran and bambara groundnut flours in that order. Bambara groundnut had highest positive effect on the ash content; followed by carrot and rice flours. While amaranth grain, carrot and rice bran significantly (p≤0.05) affect the proximate and functional compositions, bambara groundnut had the highest and best effect on the proximate, functional, mineral properties as well as the amino acid profile of the composite flour.

Open access

Yunfeng Hu, Jinjin Wei and Yuanyuan Chen

Abstract

The purpose is to analyze the concentration-response relationship of salt on the rheological properties, cooking characteristic and microstructure of fresh noodle and investigate the influence rules of salt on rheological characteristics, cooking characteristics and microstructure of fresh noodle. The change rules of rheological parameters, cooking characteristics and microstructure were analyzed using the refined wheat flour as the experimental material, adding different proportion of salt (0 up to 5% weight on flour basis), making fresh noodles. Results showed that the dough formation time, stability time, the maximum tensile force and tensile range increased gradually, weakening degree and the best cooking time decreased gradually, in addition, the internal network structure was fine-meshed with the increase of salt content. But the tensile distance began to decline, the network structure became loose and the hole enlarged when adding amount surpassed 3%. Taken together, adding 3% of the salt can improve the quality of fresh noodle. Research conclusions: the right amount of salt can improve the opaque quality index and tensile properties, reduce water absorption and optimum cooking time, enhance the internal network structure; but excessive salt will reduce the tensile properties of noodles and cooking characteristics, black or even destroy the production of internal network structure.

Open access

Adina Frum

Abstract

Romanian spontaneous flora provides a lot of resources for the determination of different chemical compounds. This study uses flower samples from Calendula officinalis L. extracted through maceration. The chemical compounds determined were: (+)-catechin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, rutin, resveratrol and quercetin. They were analyzed by using an optimized HPLC method. (+)-Catechin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and quercetin could not be identified in the analyzed samples. The greatest amount of phenolic compound found was rutin and the smallest quantity was determined for ferulic acid. The quantified compounds have proven to have benefits regarding human health, thus they can be used as functional compounds and can be included in food products and food supplements.