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Christine M. Hassenstab

Open access

Christine M. Hassenstab

Open access

Fekadu Kassa

Abstract

This paper presents the rate and effects of urban sprawl in Ethiopia highlighting the city of Addis Ababa. The purpose is to assess the rate and effects of urban sprawl and its role for metropolitan linkage. The study was conducted based on both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources were obtained from selected informants who can be principally distinguished as key government officials such as mayor and head of sub-cities and selected satellite towns. The qualitative approaches used were based on document and content analysis. The rate of urban sprawl along the five outlets of the city is dissimilar. The highest growth rate of urban spread has been observed along the Mojo outlet stretching to the towns of Dukem and Debrezeit; the rate of spread along the Jimma outlet to Alem Gena is also high. A lesser extent of urban sprawl is found along Dessie, Gojam and Nekemite outlets. The rate of urban sprawl along the Mojo and Jimma outlets is more than double that of the other outlets. Holistically, in 2010, the growth of the city stretched along its catchments for an average of about 1 km in all direction, and 2 km along the major outlets. From 2020 onward, it is predicted to 0.5 km intervals. The city may also expand vertically rather than horizontally. Urban sprawl has both positive and negative effects on the areas of expansion and their peoples. The positive effects are that it contributes to improvements in the economy of farmers in the invaded areas, changes their way of life to an urban style, and the indigenous peoples also have a better chance of being reclassified as urban and therefore of engaging in urban employment than under the previous system of farming. This development also plays a significant role in the urban growth of the city and the integration of satellite areas. Thus, the rate of urban growth of the city is very high. The ideal prescription would be to practice strong integrative work with the sub-cities and proximate rural areas in order to encourage timely and proper supervision and to bring the required growth to the city.

Open access

Tamar Charkviani

Abstract

It is a widely accepted notion that the major change brought by the 2003 November revolution in Georgia was the reform of the public services. Two major tasks were to be achieved for the state institutions: to monopolize the use of legitimate power on the state territory and to start providing services to the citizens. Police reform was at the heart of both these objectives. The major obstacle identified on the way of this reform was corruption. Indeed it was widely known that posts in police forces were to be purchased; policemen were involved in organized crime, extortion, and other illegal pursuits. But the corruption itself was the effect of the broader system in which patrimonial system of not distinguishing between the public office and private sphere was hybridized with the legal-rational rule, having its origin in the Soviet Union. The main subject of our research is to analyze the model of informal power network in Georgian police, to describe its configurations and identify its social actors.

For the theoretical approach in our study we will use different theories describing informal institutes and the reasons of their existence. One of the main theoretical sources for our analysis will be the theoretical concept of Helmke and Levitsky. Helmke and Levitsky are describing four types of informal institutions which we plan to apply to Georgian police system and identify which of them is more relevant for Georgian reality. Also we will refer to such theories as: Mark Granoveter's strength of week ties and social “embeddedness” of economic action; Mars and Altman's Cultural Basis of Soviet Georgia; Ledeneva's theory of “Blat”, which is one of most popular analytical theory about informal relations in post-Soviet countries.

The main methods we have used are in-depth and narrative interviews. The interviews have been conducted with policemen currently working in different police departments, policemen no more working in this structure, expert and NGO representatives.

Open access

Ana Chelidze

Abstract

Deep economic and democratic changes in Georgian society in last 20 years have conditioned the transformation of social environment in such a way that people had to change their views on society and their place in the new social environment. Changing attitudes on social reality affected and transformed the whole system of social identity. Transformation processes were characterized with reduced trust and tolerance among people and different social groups and with increase/weakening of different aspects of basic identities. Difficulties emerging from the process of formation of identity system hinder the development integration processes in the society. For the society in transition in the conditions of normative uncertainty and devaluation of values actuality of such problems as are the lack of trust on every level of relationship and disorientation of people, is of high importance. Our starting issue is that nowadays in the framework of construction of social identity basic identity encompasses civil, national, confessional, ideological elements which determine the state of a person in the system of social coordinates. The subject of this sociological research was to study the role of religion and ethnicity in the modern configuration of identity in Georgian society.