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Dynamics of Selected Soil Quality Indicators in Response to Land Use/Cover and Elevation Variations in Wanka Watershed, Northwestern Ethiopian Highlands

Abstract

Soil quality (SQ) dynamics assessment vis-à-vis land use/land cover (LULC) and elevation variations in Ethiopia is desirable as elevation impact on land use is highly pronounced. This study examined SQ indicators dynamics across LULC and elevation variations. For this, surface soil samples (0−20 cm) were collected from the recognized LULC categories of different elevations in Wanka watershed, northwestern Ethiopian highlands. Both disturbed and undisturbed soil samples that were taken from three adjacent LULC (natural forest, grazing and cultivated lands) and elevation (2238–2300, 2400–2600, and 2700–2800) classes analysed for the selected physico-chemical SQ indicators. Two-way ANOVA, Tukey’s multiple comparison test and SQ deterioration index were computed. The impact of LULC and elevation was found significant on key SQ indicators. In cultivated and grazing lands, soil organic matter (SOM) and soil nutrients like total nitrogen declined significantly (p < 0.01). Conversely, bulk density increased significantly (p < 0.01). The divalent basic cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+), cation exchange capacity and pH significantly (p < 0.01) decreased in upper elevation. Synergetic effect of LULC and elevation variations was found significant (p < 0.01) on SOM, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, water content at field capacity and soil particle distribution (silt and clay). Thus, elevation specific land management strategies that improve these SQ indicators need to be emphasized.

Open access
Economic Aspects of Manure Management and Practices for Sustainable Agriculture in Turkey

Abstract

Turkish livestock sector plays very important role in the Turkish GDP and the use of manure affects the environment but the farming sector want the farmers to employ the use of more integrated manure practice. The study assessed the economic impacts of integrated manure and chemical fertilizer used and the manure management practices sustainable for Turkish agriculture. Turkey is dependent on foreign countries not only for energy but for chemical fertilizers raw materials. High price of chemical fertilizers is one of the negative impact, manure substitution will lead to stable macro-economy, and environmental friendly economy and agricultural productivity will also impacts. To achieve these impacts, some manure practices suitable for sustainable rural development in Turkey was assessed.

Open access
Extreme Variabilities of Rainfall and Runoff Regime within Vulnerable Hydrographic River Basins. Case Study: Elan River Basin, 2016 (Romania)

Abstract

The present paper analyzes the extreme variabilities of rainfall and runoff regime within vulnerable hydrographic river basins, focused on a case study: Elan river basin, year 2016. This year, due to excess rainfall, the Elan River basin was affected by torrential rainfall, warned against by orange and red code hydrological forecasts. For this reason, this study makes an analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of the surface runoff also considering the main flood events occurring in this river basin. The impact of liquid precipitation on the surface runoff will be highlighted by a statistical analysis of the relationship between monthly average flows and the sum of monthly precipitation in the river basin. The monthly flows series from the Murgeni and Poșta Elan hydrometric stations were capitalized through appropriate statistical analyses. Maximum flows were reported to the thresholds values corresponding to the Defense Levels.

Open access
Floristic Biodiversity of Weed Communities in Arable Lands of Istria Peninsula (From 2005 to 2017)

Abstract

This paper analyses the floristic biodiversity of weed communities in the arable lands of the Istrian peninsula during a twelve year period (2005–2017). A total of 50 fields were surveyed for each sampling time using the seven-degree Braun-Blanquet cover abundance scale in the following agricultural categories: a) permanent crops (vineyards/olive groves), b) alfalfa fields, c) cereals, d) row crops and e) ruderal areas. The taxonomic identification was performed during the full development of vegetation, for cereals in June and July, and for the rest – in August and September. A total of 175 weed species were determined during both study periods with Asteraceae and Poaceae families as the most abundant. Altogether, therophytes were dominant in both surveys, followed by hemycryptophytes and geophytes. Variations in species composition were visible in both study periods (2005 and 2017) as well as in the selected habitat types. Exclusive species were found in addition to those that were common for both surveys. Changes in species composition between 2005 and 2017 referred to the difference in row spacing in earlier period, and ruderal vs. agricultural habitats in the recent survey. The differences in phenological traits between the past and present surveys were greatest for germination season in permanent crops and row crops, flowering start for permanent crops, flowering period for ruderal area and weed height for permanent crops. Significant differences between the past and present survey for other plant traits did not occur.

Open access
Human impact of septic tank effluent on groundwater quality in the rural area of Ain Soltane (Ain Defla), Algieria

Abstract

The impact of individual septic tank effluent on groundwater quality was investigated in the rural area of the Ain Soltane municipality in Algeria. This area has an important number of individual septic tanks, and it is devoid of a drinking water supply and sewerage systems. The septic tank is a pre-treatment solution of sewage by bacteria living without oxygen (anaerobic). The alluvial aquifer in this area is covered by a layer of good permeability on the surface, which can pollute groundwater by vertical transport of pollutants through the soil, including microbial contamination. Groundwater samples were collected from 33 wells in the dry period of 2016. The monitoring of groundwater quality has shown a significant degree of organic and inorganic pollution in the majority of wells, with very high concentrations of sulphate and chloride exceeding 450 mg/l and 250 mg/l respectively. The analyzes also show the presence of bacterial germs in the groundwater of which the origin is faecal (faecal coliform densities are above 10 organisms per 100 ml, and the Total Streptococcus is more than 240 colonies per 100 ml). Monitoring confirms the contamination of these wells from septic tanks and that it was moving into groundwater, which makes it unfit for drinking due to the pathogenic germs. This poses a major problem for public health. This study has identified the effects of septic tank effluent on groundwater quality in this area.

Open access
Impact of globalization on the handloom industry – A case study of the Hugli district of West Bengal

Abstract

The concept of globalization appeared in the Indian subcontinent in 1991. With the onset of liberalization, privatization and globalization a new chapter has been opened up in the Indian economy and her billion plus population. The Hugli district is one of the most renowned names in the handloom industry of West Bengal and a good percentage of people are engaged in this heritage industry. The study is conducted in five handloom clusters of the district, namely – Dhaniakhali - Somaspur, Begumpur, Haripal, Rajbolhat and Balagar. The main objectives of this paper were to investigate the effects of globalization on the rural handloom weaver community, in terms of their economic and social conditions. At the same time the article intends to analyse the changes in the over all production scenario of the handloom industry in the district due to modernization. It can be said that the handloom industry of the Hugli district is suffering from some inherent problems like low productivity, lack of product diversification and problems related to procuring raw materials. The co-operative sectors are indifferent to enlarging their market sphere. Though there are plenty of efficient and skilled weavers but they are only doing their traditional practices, the adoption of modern techniques is significantly poor among the weavers. Therefore the new generations are totally unwilling to accept weaving as their main occupation because of the uncertainty of the industry. The article also suggests some strategies to make this ever challenging industry globally competitive, such as, the identification of modern trends, promotion of exports, market assessment so that this heritage industry can cope with the modern trends and utilise the benefits of globalization.

Open access
The Impact of the Absence of Communication on the Success of Rehabilitation Projects of the Built Heritage: The Case of the Old City of Constantine

Abstract

Since the 1960s of the 20th century, research on the success of projects have been updated and are increasing in cyclical projects (event-centered projects) which appear regularly in excess of budget, or even sometimes incomplete when the event or subject of their creation is over. Within this context, with the appointment of Constantine as the Arab Capital of Culture 2015, the Algerian Government has registered 76 rehabilitation projects for the old buildings of the city, under the guardianship of the Ministry of Culture. The last has designated the Office National de Gestion et d’Exploitation des Biens Culturels Protégés (OGEBCP) (National Office for the Management and Exploitation of Preserved Cultural Property) as a contracting authority assistant, given its considerable experience in building management in the city of Tlemcen, Capital of Islamic Culture in 2011. During our investigation, none of the selected projects has been completed, while the allocated budget has been entirely consumed. Why? Who is responsible for this failure? Our role is to investigate the weak links in these rehabilitation projects to avoid future similar failure. It seems like the success of a project depends on the behavior of the main actors responsible for it as well as a number of technical skills that seem difficult to bring together in a single individual. Therefore, we focus on the actors of the project. The process of conservation operations is a delicate one to conduct for the success of the project. The conditioning of shorter deadlines in full eventcentered projects is in fact one of the most difficult challenges. We propose to analyze the management of communication between the project actors assuming that, an inappropriate management could have negative impacts on the success

Open access
The Influence of Evapotranspiration and Wet Deposition on the Variations of PM10 Concentration in the Ciuc Basin

Abstract

Trend analysis for potential evapotranspiration (PET) and climatic water balance (CWB) is critical in identifying the particulate matter concentration (PM10) variations. The PET is computed based on the monthly average temperature for the Ciuc basin using Thornthwaite parameterization. The highest levels of evapotranspiration appear during the months of May and June. The lowest levels of particulate concentration characterize the period during April-June. Precipitation is highest during May and June. Particulate matter in the highest cloud water is 0.014 µg/m3/mm during April and 0.010 µg/m3/mm during May. One can observe a significant level of negative correlation between particulate matter concentration, the potential evapotranspiration and precipitation.

Open access
The Influence of Transport Infrastructure Development on Bird Diversity and Abundance

Abstract

In recent decades, detrimental effects of roads have been the focus of numerous studies. Roadways have various negative effects, such as habitat fragmentation, noise and air pollution, on bird communities. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of traffic noise on the bird’s abundance during autumn period. Field operations were performed in a forest located parallel to a main high-traffic highway. The bird’s abundance was recorded using a point counting method at 27 points along three transects (65, 335 and 605 m from the road). The counting at each point was conducted every five minutes and repeated once every week (12 times during autumn). Environmental indices including the number of trees with DBH of over 20 cm, the number of standing dead trees, canopy cover percentage and Leq 30 were also measured. A total of 2950 bird belonging to 30 species were observed. The number of dominant species (more than 10) in the area considerably changed as the distance from the road increased. Leq 30 had the greatest correlation coefficient with bird abundance. Therefore, traffic noise has negative effects on the bird’s abundance in this area.

Open access
Internet of Things and the Environment

Abstract

Along with the well-known attributes of mankind's future (sustainable, socially inclusive, environmentally-friendly), the last few years we was witnessing the appearance of a new digital attribute. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the ongoing digital revolution that attempts to put into practice all the benefits of explosive development of digital technologies and associated communication capabilities. The huge amount of information collected by computerized planning, production management, technology risk practice and health hazards monitoring has to serve both economic development, advanced management resources, financial profit, and a better protected environment. The IoT Revolution is in its early stages and its focus is on assuring the associated infrastructure as quickly as possible (hardware, BigData software, sensor systems, protected sensitive data, safe communications). The first results are expected in optimizing and streamlining technologies in the management of non-renewable resources. It is appreciated that by 2030, the value added by IoT will amount to about $14 trillion in industry alone. But it would be a mistake to stop the benefits of IoT there. The authors devise a SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Traits) analysis, and evaluate the benefits and risks of aligning environmental/social policies to the IoT, proposing a brevity of measures to ensure that the sustainability is considered in the IoT implementation at all stages and at all levels: enterprise, industrial, geographical area, global region. The IoT vision and mission are presented in light of this approach, strategic objectives and important action directions. It also highlights the ethical issues related to the development of an interconnected world through IoT (where unrestrained access to information is stopped, who and for whose control this access has been made, etc.). The terms IoE (Internet of Environment) and IoS (Internet of Sustainability) are suggested.

Open access