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Discretion of the Monetary Policy: An Exemplification with Bolivia

Abstract

In this paper, we evaluate and quantify the role of the discretion of the monetary policy in an open small and open economy (the case of Bolivia). The results suggest that conventional instruments of the Central Bank respond in different ways: interest rates present a sensitive/elastic response to output gap (actual economic cycle) [1.8]; an inelastic mechanism to inflation [0.5]. On the other hand, open market operations in the Central Bank responds elastically to inflation [1.2] and insensible to the output gap. These results are robust to alternative specification utilizing the Generalized Method of moments (GMM), for the quarterly period from 2000(T1)-2015(T4).

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Does Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Contribute to Poverty Reduction? Empirical Evidence from Central European and Western Balkan Countries

Abstract

This paper seeks to empirically examine the validity of nexus between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and poverty reduction in the context of twelve European transition and post-transition countries divided in two regions, between 2000 and 2015. The empirical analysis investigates whether some variations in poverty reduction are influenced by countries’ FDI performance and lead by progress in the EU integration process. The study finds that the nexus between FDI and poverty reduction varies between two regions (the Western Balkan region and the Central Europe region). While the relationship between FDI and poverty reduction has a positive effect in the Western Balkan region, it is insignificant and negative in the Central European region. In addition, the findings confirm some earlier assumptions that FDI impacts poverty reduction more strongly in poorer countries (the Western Balkan region) than in wealthier countries (the Central European region).

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Employees’ Creativity Development within Innovative Processes of Enterprise

Abstract

Business practice requires creativity to be considered an important part of management because innovation is the result of it. The aim of the paper is to find out how is the creativity of employees supported in food enterprises in Slovakia. After evaluating the information obtained from structured interview and questionnaire based on the 5-degree Likert scale, there were used one way ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis test as well as Cronbach alpha and Spearman’s correlation tests. The survey also highlighted the significant innovation potential of food enterprises in Slovakia. Innovation and creativity development activities can be stimulated through the use of various techniques, with some having a specific effect on a subset of innovation types and others being applicable to a wide variety of innovations.

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Examining the Validity of Wagner’s Law versus Keynesian Hypothesis: Evidence from Turkey’s Economy

Abstract

The direction of the causality relationship between public expenditures and economic growth is one of the most controversial issues of the literature, which also causes great disagreements in the design process of economic policies. There are two approaches to this subject, which are opposite each other and called “Wagner’s Law” and “Keynesian Hypothesis”. This paper aims to examine the validity of Wagner’s law and Keynesian proposition in Turkey using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model over the period of 1998-2016. The findings supported the “Keynesian Hypothesis”, which advocates a one-way causality relationship from public spending to national output. More specifically, the results of the study showed that the effect of public expenditures on economic growth was positive in the short term and negative in the long term. From an economic policy standpoint, it can be argued that policymakers can promote Turkish economic growth through expansionary fiscal policies in the short run.

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An Investigation into the Level of Financial Inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa

Abstract

Financial inclusion is crucial for redistribution of economic resources between the deficit and surplus units in an economy. Despite the importance of financial inclusion, especially for economic growth of developing regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa, the prevailing level financial inclusion remain an open question. Against this background, this study investigates the level of financial inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa between 2005 and 2015. This study employs secondary data obtained from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The data obtained was subjected to Principal Component Analysis to determine the level of financial inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa. The findings show that Sub-Saharan Africa has a medium level of financial inclusion during the observed period with Index of Financial Inclusion (IFI) value of 0.095023. The study concludes that Sub-Saharan Africa has high propensity to achieve a high level of financial inclusion in the region if more outlets of financial institutions are established.

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The Use of Demographic and Psychographic Segmentation to Creating Marketing Strategy of Brand Loyalty

Abstract

With growing competition, loyal customers have become the key to the company’s success. Brand loyalty has been a central structure for marketing for almost a century, yet this research topic is still modern and up to date. The aim of this contribution is to answer the research question of whether there are different segments of customers based on demographic and psychographic aspects that would differ in the level of brand loyalty in the company. In other words, do certain groups of company’s customers (according to demographic or psychographic segmentation) have a higher degree of loyalty to the company’s brand? To answer the research question, we have identified hypotheses expressing the existence of a statistical dependence between individual segmentation variable and the level of brand loyalty. Based on statistical testing of established hypotheses, we have confirmed the existence of certain company’s segments that have a higher degree of loyalty.

Open access
Examining Different Factors of Income Tax Non-Compliance in a Small Sample in Bangladesh

Abstract

Income tax non-compliance is worldwide delinquent and with the small volume of income tax collection Bangladesh has been facing its demerits for a long time. There is still a gap to measure income tax non-compliance behaviour in a micro direct approach. This study uses EVSCALE instrument to calculate the individual income tax non-compliance as a latent variable. The instrument consists of 15 items in Likert scale to measure the non-compliance behaviour of a person. The objective of this study is to identify the determinants of income tax non-compliance and key factors of EVSCALE in Bangladesh. The study collected opinions of taxpayers by primary data collection following a convenient sampling method. Logit regression analysis finds out that log monthly income, tax morale, tax education and occupation significantly influence income tax non-compliance. Exploratory factor analysis identifies six key factors that have consistency and shared variance. However, Cronbach’s alpha shows that five key factors have high reliability among six factors. According to rules of thumb, this study suggests that EVSCALE instrument needs modification by adding more items. This study argues that increasing participation in taxation system is a feasible policy for government instead of increasing tax rate.

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The Reaction of Stock Markets in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries to Economic Policy Uncertainty in the United States

Abstract

This study investigates if the changes in economic policy uncertainty in the U.S. can explain the returns on stock markets of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. The study also examines how the stock market returns of the six GCC countries respond to the changes in economic policy uncertainty in the U.S. The results demonstrate that changes in economic policy uncertainty in the U.S. are not significantly linked with the returns on all the stock markets except Oman stock market, which shows a statistical significant negative relationship with the changes in economic policy uncertainty in the U.S. Controlling for the effects of the U.S. stock market and oil price, returns on all the six GCC markets including Oman show insignificant coefficients. The returns on all the stock markets do not respond to the changes in economic policy uncertainty. The results of Granger causality tests show that the changes in economic policy uncertainty in the U.S. do not cause the returns of all the six GCC stock markets.

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Domestic Debt and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An ARDL Bounds Test Approach

Abstract

The study examines the long-run relationship between domestic debt and the fiscal policy of economic growth in Nigeria in the period from 1981 to 2013 owing to government reforms in the financial system, particularly due to the establishment of the Debt Management Office (DMO) in 2000 and a new fully funded pension fund scheme, both of which resulted in a resurgence of the debt market. The issue that is often raised is the doubt regarding the stability of the debt and its likely implications for the economy, as well as the unpleasant consequences for the government embarking on consolidation. The study employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach and the bounds test as proposed by Narayan (2005), anchored on the perspective of the endogenous growth theory. The results reveal that although overall the adverse negative domestic debt hurts the economy, it has a positive effect on the total aggregate government revenue and economic growth in Nigeria in the research period. Furthermore, the paper develops a system to assess the speed of the adjustment mechanism coefficient in an error correction model (ECM).

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External Debt Financing and Public Capital Investment in Nigeria: A Critical Evaluation

Abstract

This study considers the consequences of external loan on capital investment in Nigeria. Data for the study have been collected from the World Bank and Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin, 2018 edition. The variables on which data are sourced include government capital expenditure, external debt accumulation, debt servicing cost, inflation rate, and exchange rate. Government capital expenditure is the dependent variable, while external debt accumulation and debt servicing cost are the key independent variables. Inflation and exchange rates are used as the moderating variables. The scope of the study covers the period from 1996 to 2018 and the data are analysed using the ordinary least squares multiple regression method. The regression results indicate that external debt has a significant negative impact on capital investment while debt servicing cost has a strong and significant positive effect on capital investment. Under this circumstance, the controlling variables are not significant in influencing capital investment. Hence, the study suggests more focus on profitable capital investments if external borrowing must be embarked upon. The need for the development of untapped natural resources, establishment of industries and revival of abandoned industries to boost debt repayment has been emphasized. The study also strongly recommends that the existing governments (state and federal) should endeavour to complete capital projects of past administrations in order to drive the economy and to avoid wastage of financial resources including the borrowed funds.

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