Gabriela Musat, Alina Anghel, Lucia Radu and Roxana Decusara
BACKGROUND. Vestibular disorders are a group of widely spread diseases that have as a common denominator the disturbance of the equilibrium system. The assessment of vestibular disorders consists in a complex examination of the patient including a thorough anamnesis, a rigorous clinical examination and multiple functional explorations.
OBJECTIVE. To asses weather there is a correlation between the data obtained in posturography and those obtained in the videonystagmography in patients with peripheral vestibular disorders.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. Collecting data from the observation sheets of patients diagnosed with peripheral vestibular syndrome and examined in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the “Sfanta Maria” Hospital in Bucharest over a period of 18 months.
RESULTS. We analyzed a number of 97 cases of patients diagnosed with peripheral vestibular disorder. A large number of patients (49) had correlated changes in the caloric tests and also in the posturography. A second group of patients (43) had changes in caloric tests but with no changes in posturography. The third group of 5, paradoxically, had a vestibular deficiency in posturography associated with normal caloric reactivity.
CONCLUSION. The results obtained with the videonystagmography are correlated with those of the caloric and rotational videonystagmographic tests in the case of acute vestibular diseases. In chronic vestibular diseases, it is possible to find caloric vestibular paresis in the presence of a normal posturography. The “vestibular omission” is a phenomenon in which the patient does not use the vestibular input of a normal labyrinth with caloric and rotary tests within normal limits. As no vestibular examination can be considered as selfstaging diagnosis, we always have to establish the final diagnosis correlating the results of all the tests available.
Paskaramoorthy Sasitharan, Nor Idayu Mohd Yusof and Kugan Varatha Raju
Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a rare neoplasm characterized by monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. It is most often located in the head and neck region. Extramedullary Plasmacytomas are more predominant in males who are in the 5th – 6th decade. In this report, this patient, who is a young female, presented to our clinic with history of intermittent nasal obstruction for the past year. She was diagnosed with extramedullary plasmacytoma and was subjected to radiotherapy. The clinical and histopathologic findings of plasmacytoma are discussed. In order to exclude systemic involvement, a systematic approach using clinical, laboratory and radiologic investigations was performed. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the nasal cavity is rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nasal cavity masses, especially in the young age group.
Andra Virlan, Nicoleta Schileru, Amalia Neagu and Claudiu Manea
A 40-year-old female patient presented to our clinic for bilateral nasal obstruction, anteroposterior mucopurulent rhinorrhea, recurrent micro-epistaxis, anosmia, left otodynia, fever and sweating. The ENT findings and CT scan detected a septal tumor with predominant extension in the left nostril, with erosive character of the osteo-cartilaginous septal structure, without sinusal involvement and left lateralcervical adenopathy. Resection of the entire septal tumor formation was performed. The histopathological outcome revealed non-Hodgkin’s small-type NK/T extranodal nasal-type lymphoma – immunohistochemical tests confirmed histogenesis.
Daniela Vrinceanu, Mihai Dumitru, Maria Sajin, Carmen Maria Salavastru and Adrian Costache
BACKGROUND. Lymph node tuberculosis is a pathology with an increasing incidence and prevalence in middle income countries.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We present a series of 4 cases with cervical lymph node tuberculosis. We review current principles of diagnosis and treatment from the perspective of the ENT surgeon in a tertiary university clinic.
RESULTS. In each case we underline diagnosis difficulties and treatment options. These cases presented management difficulties due to associated morbidities. All cases underwent surgical excision of the afflicted lymph nodes with subsequent microscopic confirmation of tuberculosis. We illustrate key concepts leading to the microscopy diagnosis of lymph node tuberculosis.
CONCLUSION. There are various surgical incidents and accidents that the young surgeon must be aware of when approaching neck tuberculous lymph nodes. Further referral of the patient for long-term tuberculosis treatment is mandatory. All patients were supervised for a minimum of 1 year after the initial diagnosis and treatment with no sign of recurrence. A close cooperation between the ENT surgeon, the infectious disease specialist and the pathologist is the key to an optimum approach to lymph node tuberculosis at the head and neck level.
OBJECTIVES. We reviewed the relationship between olfactory functions and Behçet’s disease (BD).
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We searched Pubmed, Google, Google Scholar and Proquest Cebtral Database with the key words of “olfactory”, “functions”, “smell”, “nasal” and “Behçet’s disease”.
RESULTS. Behçet’s disease influences the nasal mucosa. Nasal mucosal inclusion causes mucosal ulcers, pain, burning, nasal obstruction, epistaxis, nasal itching and dysosmia. Nasal cartilage deformity is also reported. The higher rate of comorbid chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in BD patients may likewise be because of the complex mechanism of the disease inclining the host tissues to bacterial infections. Olfactory functions may decrease in BD. Odor identification may be lower in patients BD.
CONCLUSION. An olfactory dysfunction may be seen in patients with BD. BD patients should be evaluated for the involvement of the olfactory function and may require treatment because of a malfunction of the olfactory system that influences the quality of life. Neurological involvement associated with BD might play a more important role in causing olfactory dysfunction than mucosal involvement.
Ranko Mladina, Neven Skitarelić, Cemal Cingi and Nuray Bayar Muluk
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this article is to highlight some terms which have been ingrained in the rhinosinusology literature.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. It regards the term “accessory ostium” and the term “septal deviation”. The well-known and deeply ingrained term “accessory ostium” has been widely used for decades, but essentially it is absolutely incorrect. “Septal deviation” is an inadequate term for the changes of the nasal septum form.
RESULTS. From the linguistic point of view, “accessory” means something (or someone) which (or who) helps someone or gives support (to something or someone) in some process. We recommend the use of the term “defect of the fontanel” instead of “accessory ostium”. The use of the term “septal deformity” (from Latin: de forma, meaning the change in the shape) is etymologically much more appropriate. Septal deformities appear in man in several, well defined shapes and, therefore, can be correctly classified. The classification contributes to the further scientific conversations regarding the clinical issues connected to the changes of the nasal septum form.
CONCLUSION. The usual term “accessory ostium” suggests almost a normal finding on the lateral nasal wall, but, on the contrary, it clearly signalizes that the respective maxillary sinus is chronically inflamed. The usual term “septal deviation” is not at all specific and only suggests that something is wrong with the position of the nasal septum. It does not at all imply any of the six well known types of septal deformities in man.
We report a case of a 47-year-old patient recently diagnosed with left abducens nerve palsy, who was admitted in our clinic with diplopia. The cranio-facial CT scan revealed left sphenoid fungal rhinosinusitis and the patient underwent endoscopic surgery with complete removal of the fungal material. The immediate postoperative evolution of the patient was favourable, with partial improvement of diplopia. The first month follow-up visit revealed the recurrence of the diplopia, so the patient performed an MRI scan of the brain that showed a cavernous sinus meningioma. The patient was referred to a neurosurgeon who choose a “wait-and-see” strategy instead of surgery.
The paper presents the limits of computed tomography versus magnetic resonance imaging in the radiologic diagnosis of intracranial tumors.
BACKGROUND. Radiofrequency reduction and Coblation are widely used procedures for the treatment of functionally enlarged turbinates with an appropriate outcome. Bleeding and crusting are postoperative complications for Coblation. Thermographic measurements and histological analyses were used to elucidate the causes.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. In a porcine turbinate model, double-needle electrodes of different lengths were tested using a 4MHz radiofrequency current with either automatic energy limitation or a predetermined energy amount of 200 J. Coblation, according to the manufacturer’s instructions, was carried out with a Reflex Ultra 45 wand. The generated temperature was measured with thermo-probes at the tip of the electrodes. The mucosa was subsequently investigated histologically.
RESULTS. Without preoperative saline injection, all procedures generate temperatures < 100° C. After saline injection, excessive temperatures are reached by Coblation after the release of plasma in a closed system. The follow-up is a severe deterioration of the microscopic structures of the mucosa. The low-temperature advantages of Coblation are only effective if the mandatory saline solution rinses the surface. The Radiofrequency applications deliver more predictable results.
CONCLUSION. For the treatment of the functional enlargement of the turbinates, Radiofrequency current with proofed settings should be chosen.
Daniela Vrinceanu, Ana Maria Oproiu, Mihai Dumitru, Madalina Georgescu and Mariana Costache
BACKGROUND. Excision of facial cutaneous carcinomas requires further reconstruction in a combined team with plastic surgeons. Among the traditional risk factors, the unprotected occupational exposure to sunlight can be identified. Giant masses at the level of the nose are frequently squamous carcinomas in origin. Moreover, repeated tumor trauma favours local-regional and remote extension.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We present step by step the surgical management of an old woman with a nasal mass of 58/36/20 mm. Also, the patient presented right genian tumefaction of approximately 6 months in evolution.
RESULTS. The patient was submitted to surgical resection with free margins, leaving a considerable nasal and genian groove defect. Teaming up with the plastic surgeon, we applied complex reconstruction techniques with a satisfactory aesthetic and functional result. The histopathologic diagnosis confirmed our suspicion of an acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma with lymph nodes metastasis.
CONCLUSION. Our case exhibited traditional risk factors, living in a rural environment. The tumor degree of aggressiveness was increased by repeated self-inflicted trauma. Late presentation to healthcare services implied complex facial reconstruction for the combined resection of the nasal tip and genian lymph node.