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Language Learning in the Third Age

Abstract

This paper discusses the importance of foreign language learning as a means of maintaining healthy cognitive, psychological and social functioning in elderly people. It argues that a complex cognitive activity involving multiple skills and stimulating extensive neural networks can greatly contribute to contrast the inception of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and other types of dementia. Because of age-related physical and mental limitations, and because old learners find it hard to abandon tried-and-tested methodologies and attitudes, it is, however, crucial that teachers and educators try to meet the older adult’s needs by customising teaching procedures and learning environment to their requirements and expectations. Rather than introducing a great amount of new information and learning techniques, it may be much more fruitful to encourage the older adult to retrieve and rely on previously acquired knowledge and consolidated learning strategies. The adoption of computer-assisted language learning, however, may be helpful and motivating for older learners, provided technological demands are kept to a minimum.

Open access
Old age individuals on the Russian labor market: challenges and opportunities

Abstract

The relevance of the research topic is due to the following circumstances: firstly, repeating the European trend, the labor supply in the Russian labor market is characterized by increase in the cohort of people aged 60 years and older, which negatively affects the indicators of economic growth and, in the context of the transformation of labor legislation, strengthens the scientific interest in the problem of aging employees and prolonging their working capacity;

secondly, in modern foreign and Russian studies there is no uniform idea of the signs of classifying workers as older working age, which makes it difficult to conduct a comparative analysis and disseminate effective international experience to solve the employment problem, taking into account demographic realities;

thirdly, in the theory and practice of labor economics there is no well-formed idea of a system of factors that influence the success of older working age workers, which affects the quality of the development of promising areas and methods of their use;

fourthly, when the risk factor in the work with personnel is indicated in the profile economic literature, its assessment regarding employees of older able-bodied growth has not been developed;

fifthly, in modern studies there is no effective mechanism to increase the success of older working age workers, taking into account the specifics of achieving the effectiveness of their work, taking into account competence, involvement and possible risks.

The purpose of the study is to develop theoretical concepts and methodological provisions on the professional success of older workers and the mechanism for its increase in the Russian labour market, taking into account risk factors.

The subject of the study is the social and labor relations evolving over the implementation of a mechanism to increase the success of older working age workers.

In the research process, general scientific methods of cognition were used, as well as methods of economic-statistical, systemic correlation analysis, expert estimation, the results of opinion polls, tabular and graphical interpretation of empirical and factual information.

Open access
Preliminary Revision of the Palynological Collection of Professor Blanka Pacltová – A Significant Collection of Cenomanian Microflora Housed at the National Museum, Prague

Abstract

A preliminary revision of the palynological collection of Professor Blanka Pacltová was carried out considering samples from the middle Cenomanian of the Peruc-Korycany Formation, the basal most member of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (the Czech Republic). This collection is mainly composed of slides with palynological residues for light microscope study, which were mounted in the 1960s and 1970s. This work presents an evaluation of the state of preservation of this collection, taking into account the presence of ancient angiosperm pollen types. High percentage of preparations is affected by degradation of glycerine jelly and their remounting is necessary. The present study additionally suggests a methodology for curation of this collection with the objective of long-term preservation.

Open access
Revision of the Late Bashkirian Cordaitalean Cordaites karvinensis and Allied Dispersed Cuticles from Upper Silesia, the Czech Republic

Abstract

The Langsettian species Cordaites karvinensis Šimůnek and C. sustae Šimůnek were found conspecific, with C. karvinensis chosen as a correct name. These species come from the same coal seam of the Upper Suchá Member (Upper Silesian Basin, the Czech Republic). Abaxial cuticle from C. karvinensis was found conspicuously similar to Cordaabaxicutis cf. jaworznoensis from the Lower Suchá Member from the strata near the Namurian/Westphalian boundary, as well as to Cordaabaxicutis jaworznoensis Šimůnek et Florjan described from the Orzesze Beds (Duckmantian) from Poland. The abaxial cuticles of all these species are papillate. It is probable that these species are members of one evolutionary lineage, however without information on the leaf morphology connected to the dispersed cuticles of Cordaabaxicutis, this opinion remains hypothetical.

Open access
The road ahead for age-friendly community in Ukraine

Abstract

As in other countries, Ukraine has persistent ageing stereotypes, with old age associated with wealth reduction, financial instability and social exclusion. Shifting these negative attitudes to active-ageing and seniors’ inclusion requires a systematic challenge. Not so long times ago the majority of people in their third age were unaware of active-ageing or expressed scepticism about the feasibility of creating an age-friendly community in Ukraine. Since the large-scale integration of Ukrainian UTAs into the EU agenda for intellectual, economic and social progress of society and individuals regardless of age, the changes in lifelong activities and participation in personally and socially meaningful ways for seniors caused a new outlook for them involving active vitality and optimism, confidence in intelligence, personal and social inclusion.

This publication is devoted to the analysis of possible road ahead for the age-friendly community in Ukraine, negative stereotyping towards senior people from the side of business and individuals. The main goal is introducing methodology, practices and tools for the successful performance of initiative for age-friendly compass in Ukraine aimed to measure ageism in society.

Open access
The senior universities students in Portugal and Brazil

Abstract

Given the growth in the number of senior universities in Portugal and Brazil, we think it is important to know the audience which frequents these institutions, their motivations, the health impact and whether there are significant differences between the two countries. The authors have created a survey that was applied in person in Portugal and the State of Goiás in Brazil. With this study, it was possible to trace the profile of the students who attend the Senior Universities (US or U3A) in Portugal and universities open to Seniors (UNATI) in Brazil. We also added a study on volunteer teachers in the Portuguese US.

We now know that are essentially women, aged 60-75 years and of all social and educational levels. As for the motives are essentially the conviviality, get active and learn. No significant differences were found between the two countries, in groups and in the motivations, with exception to the marital status and the number of courses attended.

Open access
Validation of Four New Plant Fossil Names from Turkey

Abstract

Fossil-wood descriptions from Turkey have been increasing in recent years. The aim of the present paper is to redefine four new fossil species according to the protologue for new plant fossil names. As result, these four new fossil species are verified: Cupressinoxylon pliocenica Akkemik sp. nov., Cercioxylon zeynepae Akkemik sp. nov., Zelkovoxylon yesimae Akkemik et I.Poole sp. nov. and Pistacioxylon ufukii Akkemik et I.Poole sp. nov.

Open access
The assessment of the suburbanisation degree of Warsaw Functional Area using changes of the land development structure

Abstract

The paper presents the analysis of spatial suburbanization using a multi-indicator method. Based on features related to geodetic areas (according to the directions of their use) such as built-up areas, urbanised lands, arable lands, residential, recreation and leisure areas, road transport areas as well agricultural and forest areas transformed into local land development plans - six suburbanization indicators were developed. After the standardisation of such indicators, a summary index was obtained making it possible to determine the suburbanization degree. The validation of the proposed method was made by comparing individual municipalities with the unit type determined using the Webb method. The analysis made it clear that the only four units with spatial features of the city lying in the proximity of Warsaw, for which Polish capital could be enlarged are: Piastów, Pruszków, Marki, Józefów and possibly Sulejówek.

Open access
Borders on the old maps of Jizera Mountain

Abstract

Old maps, mainly from the period between 1890 and 1940, have been collected in the framework of the project “Old Maps of the Jizera Mountains”. These maps provide us with a complex picture, mainly of tourism, in this currently Czech–Polish territory.

The territory of the Jizera Mountains was inhabited mainly by a German-speaking population on both sides of the border until 1945. Yet it is interesting to examine how the border between the two states – in those times Czechoslovakia and Germany, now Czechia and Poland – was illustrated on these old maps. This article argues that the border was not perceived as a barrier as such until later on, mainly due to the ethnic change in the borderlands. It also reveals that the borders on the maps are of manifold nature and cannot be simply limited to the national borders.

Open access
Disappointment or unexpected gain? A survey-based study of the motives and outcomes of inter-municipal cooperation in Poland

Abstract

Based on a survey of inter-municipal unions (IMUs) and inter-municipal companies (IMComs) in Poland, this article identifies the most common motives for launching inter-municipal cooperation and the most frequently reported outcomes. The declared motives are compared with the perceived outcomes, with a particular focus on mismatch situations: disappointments (when the expected gain was not realised) and unexpected outcomes (when the reported outcomes exceeded initial expectations). The research shows that the latter are reported more frequently than the former. The most frequently indicated motives for cooperation were related to financial benefits and included cost reduction and applying for additional funding. The “defensive” motive of IMC – cooperation to maintain the status quo – is practically absent. The data also suggests that cooperation can be perceived as “a value in its own right”.

Open access