This paper presents means by which relations between facts and decisions can be put on a higher, more transparent and accountable level. The complexity of relations, their exponential effects, new technology and numerous rules have increased the public administration’s unaccountability for its actions – if it is even possible to talk about accountability at all. This kind of situation is presented as the rule of nobody that through multiple relations, competencies and division of labour diminishes the possibility to view a situation as a whole, and enhances the distinction between a person’s formal role and his inner personal world. Classical decision-making procedures (more or less still) exclude interactions between political-legal and scientific institutions on one side and between the first and social groups on the other about modern risks that go beyond classical factory-related or occupational hazards. If the presented means (performance indicators, the avoidance of exclusive subjective evidence, the use of probability in individual cases, the right to clear information, the office for legislation and regulatory analysis and an IT platform) were formally integrated into decision-making, they could enable democratisation, for which the non-stop present and available communication links are sine qua non.
In developed countries, both universal and optional parts of healthcare exist. This article shows the importance and fiscal position of universally available care and suggests where it can be extended by optional financing schemes such as prepaid health programmes. We use a comparative approach, SWOT analysis and synthesis of individual mechanisms of health financing into a single health system. A simple scheme of possible health system financing configuration is created, and we classify the financial resources and schemes used accordingly. Overall this article introduces a theoretically substantiated overview of health policy options for Czechia based on principles of universally available care, solidarity, fiscal neutrality, adequate fiscal space for health and voluntary private health expenditure.
Most quantitative studies deal with the costs of transparency lobbying and give little or no attention to quantifying the benefits. The aim of the article is to determine options for increasing lobbying transparency and their evaluation and comparison from the viewpoint of direct and indirect benefits. Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) isused. Five basic options are identified. Option I is the possibility of increasing the transparency of lobbying by measures introduced on lobbyists. Option II represents an increase of transparency in terms of lobbying targets. Option III is defined as an increase in lobbying transparency by means of sunshine principles and the increase of lobbying transparency by monitoring and sanctions is included in Option IV. All five options are evaluated from the perspective of realized direct and indirect benefits. The selection of the most suitable option will be carried out in relation with the presupposed incurred regulatory costs of lobbying transparency increase.
In May 2007, the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic approved the National Program for Learning Regions. It states that the long-term strategic objective for the development of Slovak regions is the gradual reduction of disparities in living standards in regions and to improve regional economic performance. One of the tools for achieving this goal is considered the learning region concept. The main aim of this article is to streamline the presentation and monitoring of the partial progress made in achieving the objectives of the National Program for Learning Regions in the Slovak Republic to policy-makers and to make this relatively complex issue accessible to a wider audience through one aggregated index and two partial indices; the PCA method was used. The results showed relatively large differences between regions. The highest value of the aggregated LR index was reached by the Trnava region, followed by the Bratislava region; these two regions seems to be in accordance with reaching the objectives of the National Program for Learning Regions. The lowest values were found in the Banská Bystrica, Prešov and Košice regions. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between aggregated and economical-innovative indices with average GDP during the years 2008–2014 at the NUTS 3 level.
Divided ownership gives rise to a number of problems. The reintroduction of the superficies solo cedit principle and the superficiary right of building into the Czech law does not, of course, mean the return of feudal relationships. However, it should be reminded that it disrupts indivisibility (exclusivity, completeness, limitlessness) of ownership, which is traditionally seen as the foundation of ownership right. The authors use primarily comparative and historical methods in their research on this topic. In its today form, we understand divided ownership as a simplification that serves as ideological abstraction for a situation where the owner is subject to a long-term limitation by a very broad in rem right of another, which is hereditary and alienable. In this context we talk about three approaches to divided ownership in jurisprudence: (a) it does not exist at all; (b) it is limited solely to the feudal era; (c) it is a general term without relation to any specific social situation.
Lucie Vnoučková, Hana Urbancová and Helena Smolová
With the increasing importance of higher education, there is also growing public concern about its productivity. Therefore, the aim of the study is to evaluate the key internal quality management processes by student evaluation and to reveal the key factors of an effective internal quality process management. The indicators used are based on student satisfaction with the education process. The results are based on a quantitative survey using questionnaire data collection within a sample of students, and qualitative research within target groups. Descriptive statistics and two dimensional statistical methods were used to evaluate the quantitative results. The results show student evaluation of five key areas of the internal quality process management evaluation: leadership and strategic planning, student and stakeholder focus, measurement of student learning outcomes, human resource planning and educational process management. A limitation of the study is its narrow focus on a case study of a single private university.
The effectiveness of procedure is important for parties (e.g. citizens or business entities) to be able to exercise their rights in due time and is a key foundation of the rule of law. A State with an effective legal system provides a business-friendly environment, which is appealing for investments. The State decides on permits, licenses, taxes, etc. by applying administrative procedure. The aim of the paper is to identify and analyse such matters under public (administrative) law at the national level, which – due to their influence on private rights or obligations – fall under the civil or criminal limb of Article 6 of the ECHR and its requirements, as well as the requirements of Article 13. By means of a case study and descriptive-analytical and normative methods, the paper identifies comparatively selected cases and analyses the ECtHR test regarding reasonable time, focusing on overall procedure duration and the awarded compensations. The findings show that the ECtHR does not define reasonable time in abstracto. Therefore, the established violations among the states range from two-year procedures to nine years and more, depending on the circumstances of each individual case. Similarly, there are also variations in terms of compensation awarded.
A high level of competitiveness is the goal of every economic entity, whether individuals, companies, regions or nations. This paper discusses the issue of national competitiveness, which can be further divided into non-measurable and measurable input and output indicators. Output indicators are analysed in this paper, among which are a degree of openness, export performance, transformational performance and relative power of specialization. The aim is to find the relations among these indicators in the selected EU countries that form the Visegrad Group Plus, namely the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, Austria and Slovenia. These linkages have been tested by a panel regression model during the period 1995 to 2015. Strong impact of all indicators on export performance was assumed. However, this hypothesis was proved only partially, namely regarding the influence of openness degree and transformational performance on the export performance in period fixed effects.
The aim of the article is to provide a complex analysis of labour taxation impact on economic growth in OECD countries. As main approximators of taxation, implicit tax rates and the World Tax Index are used. Methods and tests of dynamic panel regression with the Arellano-Bond estimator are used from the methodological point of view. From the results of complex analysis, it is evident that there exists a non-linear relationship between tax revenues (implicit tax rates, world tax index) and tax burden (tax rates). There also exists a negative relationship between labour taxation and economic growth and the impact of labour taxation is the most harmful for economic growth. Therefore, in an effort to stimulate economic growth, labour taxation expressed by personal income taxes and social security contributions should be reduced.
The majority of household savings are in the form of bank deposits. It is therefore of interest for credit institutions to tailor their deposit policy for getting finances from non-banking entities and to provide the private sector with the loans that are necessary for investment activities and consumption. This paper deals with the determinants of the saving rate of the private sector of Slovakia. Economic, financial and demographic variables influence savings. Growth of income per capita, private disposable income, elderly dependency ratio, real interest rate and inflation have a positive impact on savings, while increases in public savings indicate a crowding out effect. The inflation rate implies precautionary savings, and dependency ratio savings for bequest. There are also implications for governing institutions deciding on the implementation of appropriate fiscal and monetary operations.